Thekeelisthebackboneoftheship.Thekeeldoesnot extend below the ship’s bottom. Its usual shape isthat of an I-beam. All other members used inconstructing the hull are attached, either directly orindirectly, to the keel.The athwartship structure consists of transverseframes and floors. The floors run outboard from thekeel to the turn of the bilge (where the bottom turnsupward). This is where they are attached to thetransverseframesthatextendupwardtothemaindeck.Frames, running parallel with the keel, are knownas longitudinal frames. From the turn of the bilge upthe sides, they are called stringers. The network of floors and longitudinal members resembles ahoneycomb and is known as cellular construction,which greatly strengthens the bottom. When platingcovers the honeycomb structure, double bottoms areformed. The space between the inner and outerbottoms (known as tanks) is used for liquid stowage.The forward end of the keel is extended upward in thestem. The after end has a similar extension, called thesternpost.Thepartofthestemabovewateristheprow;the forward edge of the stem is the cutwater.Theinteriorofashipisdividedintocompartmentsby vertical walls, called bulkheads, which run bothtransversely and longitudinally. Most bulkheads aremerely partitions, but transverse watertight bulkheadsare spaced at appropriate intervals. These structuralbulkheads extend from the keel to the main deck andfrom side to side. They provide extra transversestiffening and partition the hull into independentwatertight sections. Large ships have a series of longitudinal side bulkheads and tanks that provideprotection against torpedoes. The outer tanks usuallyare filled with oil or water. The inner tanks, which arecalled voids, are empty. The innermost bulkhead iscalled a holding bulkhead. When a torpedo hits, theouter tanks, although ruptured, absorb enough energyfrom the explosion that the holding bulkhead willremain intact. This helps to prevent flooding of thevital spaces.The hull plating is fastened to the framework inlongitudinal rows, called strakes. The keel forms thecenter strake. The strakes are lettered, beginning withtheA-strakeoneithersideofthekeelandextendingupto the main deck. Some of the strakes also have names.The A-strake is called the garboard strake; the strakealong the turn of the bilge is the bilge strake; theuppermost strake is the sheer strake.As stated, the projecting keel, running along thebottom near the turn of the bilge, is called the bilgekeel. The purpose of the bilge keel is to reduce rollingof the ship.
from side to side. A ship
when it goes up and down fore and aft.A ship
when the bow swings to port andstarboard because of wave action.The upper edges of the sides where the sheerstrakes join the main deck are called the gunwales(rhymes with funnels). The foremost part of the ship,wherethegunwalesjointhestem,isknownastheeyesoftheship(fig.3-2).Wherethegunwalescurveinwardto the sternpost are the port and starboard quarters.Thewaterlevelalongthehullofashipafloatisthewaterline. The vertical distance from the keel to thewaterline is the ship’s draft. Freeboard is the distancefrom the waterline to the main deck.The floors of a ship are called decks (fig. 3-3).Decks divide the ship into layers and provideadditional hull strength and protection for internalspaces. The lower surface of each deck forms theoverhead (never the ceiling) of the compartmentbelow. Compartments are the spaces within a ship.3-2
Figure 3-2. Hull terms.
UPPER DECKFORECASTLE DECKMAIN DECKMAIN DECKPOOP DECKFORWARD WELLDECKAFTER WELLDECKDCf0303
Figure 3-3. Weather decks.