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14057_ppr_ch5.pdf

14057_ppr_ch5.pdf

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CHAPTER5PORTABLE FIRE-FIGHTING AND DEWATERINGEQUIPMENT
LearningObjectives:
To recall the characteristics andoperationofvarioustypesofportablefireextinguishers,oxygen breathing apparatus for fire fighters, shipboarddewatering equipment and portable fans and blowers.Aboard ship, Sailors use portable fireextinguisherstoextinguishfiresincompartmentsorinthe galley. A fire-fighter’s ensemble providesprotection for fire fighters, and the ensemble isenhanced by various types of oxygen breathingapparatus (OBA) for use when fire fighting orconducting gas-free testing or inspection.Additionally, dewatering equipment, which includespumps and eductors, may have to be used whenfighting fires along with other portable equipment,such as fans and blowers. The characteristics andoperation of these types of equipment are presented inthis chapter.
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERSLearningObjective:
To recall the basic characteristicsand operation of various types of portable fireextinguishers.Portable fire extinguishers are used aboard allNavy ships, and the three types most often used are asfollows:
Dry chemical
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
)
Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)
DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHER
Portable dry chemical extinguishers (fig. 5-1) areused primarily on class BRAVO fires.Purple-K-Powder (PKP) is the chemical most oftenused in these extinguishers. The dry chemicaldispensed from the extinguisher interrupts thechemicalreactionproducingafireandthisactionstopscombustion.Dry chemical is also safe and effective for use onclass CHARLIE fires; however, carbon dioxide ispreferred because PKP fouls electrical and electroniccomponents. Also, PKP should not be used on internalfires of gas turbines or jet engines unless absolutelynecessary because it also fouls engines. PKP is noteffectiveonclassALPHAfiresandcanonlybeusedtoknock down flames and keep the fire under controluntil an appropriate extinguisher can be used.PKP extinguishers come in an 18-pound and a27-pound size. Most PKP extinguishers have a smallCO
2
cartridge mounted on the outside of theextinguisher shell. This cartridge provides thepropellant charge for the extinguisher. Do NOTpressurize the PKP extinguisher until you are ready touse it.The steps of the procedure you should adhere towhen operating a dry chemical extinguisher are asfollows:Step 1. Carry the extinguisher to the scene of thefire.Step 2. Remove the seal and pull the locking pinfrom the puncture lever marked PUSH.Step 3. Pushthepunctureleverdowntopenetratethe seal of the CO
2
cartridge. The extinguisher is nowready to use.Step 4. Approach the fire from the windwardside, if possible. Hold the extinguisher in one hand andthe nozzle in the other hand.5-1
CHECK VALVEGAS TUBESHELLCARRYINGHANDLEFILL CAPNOZZLEHOSEPUNCTURELEVERPULL PINCARTRIDGEGUARDGAS PRESSURECARTRIDGE
DCf0501
Figure 5-1. Portable dry chemical fire extinguisher.
 
Step 5. Discharge the dry chemical by squeezingthe squeeze grip on the nozzle. Hold the nozzle firmlyand direct the dry chemical at the base of the fire. Use awide-sweeping motion from side to side. This willapplyadense,widecloudofdrychemicaloverthearea.Rememberthatthe27-poundextinguisherhasa21-footrange and the 18-pound extinguisher has a reach of 19 feet.Step 6. Be certain that all of the fire in the area inwhichyouareworkingisextinguishedbeforeyoumoveinfarther.Ifthefireappearstobetoolargeorifthereisapossibilityofbeingoutflankedorsurroundedbyflames,attack the fire with the assistance of two or morepersonnel using extinguishers.Step 7. Do not try to economize on the drychemical. Use as much as necessary (and as manyextinguishers as necessary) to extinguish the firecompletely.Step 8. Always back up dry chemical with wateror foam.Step 9. After a dry chemical extinguisher hasbeen used, invert the cylinder, squeeze the dischargelever of the nozzle, and tap the nozzle on the deck. Thiswill release any pressure left in the cylinder andcartridge and any dry chemical left in the hose andnozzle. By inverting the cylinder, you prevent furtherdischarge of dry chemical and conserve the powder.Makesurethatdrychemicaldoesnotremaininthehoseand nozzle; it will cake up and clog them.The steps of the procedure you should adhere towhen recharging a dry chemical extinguisher are asfollows:Step 1. Invert the extinguisher and tap the side of the cylinder with the nozzle to knock down any loosedry chemical. Then bleed off the pressure.Step 2. Remove the fill cap.
WARNING
Do NOT lean over the top of theextinguisher when you remove the fill cap. If dry chemical splashes on you, it could causesevere injury to your skin and eyes.Step 3. Fill the cylinder with dry chemical only tothebendinthetube.Theextraspaceallowsthepowdertobeaeratedwhenthecylinderispressurized.Thisensuresthat the powder will not be caked when it is applied.Step 4. Remove any dry chemical from theinternalthreadsofthebottleandfromthethreadsofthecap.Step 5. Replace the fill cap.The steps of the procedure you should adhere towhen installing a new CO
2
cartridge are as follows:Step 1. Lift the lever cutter assembly and insertthe locking pin.Step 2. Reseal the locking pin and cutter lever.Step 3. Remove the guard covering the CO
2
cartridge.Step 4. Unscrew the expended CO
2
cartridge.Step 5. Remove the cap and gasket from a newCO
2
cartridge.Step 6. Thread the new cartridge, which hasleft-handthreads,intothefittingofthecutterassembly.Step 7. Replace the CO
2
cartridge guard.
AQUEOUS FILM-FORMING FOAM FIREEXTINGUISHER
Portable aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) fireextinguishers are used to provide a vapor seal over asmall fuel spill, extinguish small class BRAVO fires(such as deep fat fryers), and for standing fire watchduring hotwork.The portable AFFF fire extinguisher (fig. 5-2) is astainless steel cylinder containing 2 1/2 gallons of premixed AFFF concentrate and water. It ispressurized with air to 100 psi at 70° and weighsapproximately 28 pounds when fully charged. Themixture will expand about 6.5 to 1 and will produceabout16gallonsoffoam.TheAFFFextinguisherhasa55-65 second continuous discharge time and an initialrange of 15 feet, which decreases during discharge.5-2
DCf0502
Figure 5-2. Portable aqueous film-forming foam fireextinguisher.
 
Some important facts you should remember aboutthe operation and use of an AFFF extinguisher are asfollows:1. The AFFF extinguisher is designed for use onclass BRAVO pool fires; however, it may also be usedon class ALPHA fires. AFFF is NOT recommended foruse on class CHARLIE fires (energized electricalcomponents).2. Before attacking a fire, ensure the pressurewithin the cylinder is within the proper range, andremove the locking pin. To operate, squeeze theoperating lever above the carrying handle. Theextinguisher is capable of continuous operation ormultiple bursts.3. AFFF extinguishes class ALPHA fires bycooling.ItissuperiortowaterbecauseAFFFhasaddedwettingandpenetratingability.ForsmallclassALPHAfires, apply AFFF to the base (source) of the fire.4. AFFF extinguishes a class BRAVO fire orprotects an unignited fuel spill by floating on theflammable liquid and forming a vapor seal. One AFFFextinguisher will effectively extinguish 20 square feet(4 1/2 feet by 4 1/2 feet) of flammable liquid fire. Toapply,startfrom15feetawayandsweeptheAFFFfromside to side at the base of the fire. One AFFFextinguisher can be used to vapor seal a fuel spill topreventafireupto40squarefeet(about6feetby6feet)in size. Larger fuel spills, or spills which are not fullyaccessibleorvisible,shouldbecoveredusing11/2-inchAFFF hose or by the installed bilge sprinkling system.5. Deep fat fryer fires often require specialprocedures to extinguish them. Combinations of AFFFand PKP may be needed to put out these fires andprevent their spread throughout the space or intoventilationducting.AFFFshouldonlybedirectedattheback wall of the fryer, allowing the stream to flow ontothe surface of the burning oil. This technique does notdisrupt the cooking oil and allows the fire to be put outand a layer of foam to be developed over the oil.
WARNING
Do not direct AFFF directly into hotcooking oil because doing so can result inimmediate boiling of the AFFF. This violentboilingmayresultinhotcookingoilsplashingout of the fryer onto fire fighters.
CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
ThestandardNavyCO
2
fireextinguisher(fig.5-3)has a rated capacity (by weight) of 15 pounds of CO
2
.Removing the locking pin and squeezing the releasevalve built into cylinder valve operates it. CO
2
extinguishers are primarily used on small electricalfires (class CHARLIE) and have limited effectivenesson class BRAVO fires.Thestepsoftheprocedureyoushouldadheretoforoperating the CO
2
extinguisher are as follows:Step 1. Carry the extinguisher in an uprightposition and get as close to the fire as possible.Step 2. Place the extinguisher on the deck andremove the locking pin from the valve.Step 3. Grasp the insulated handle of the horn.Rapidly expanding CO
2
causes the horn to becomequite cold.Step 4. Squeeze the operating lever to open thevalveandreleaseCO
2
.DirecttheCO
2
towardthebaseof the fire. The maximum range of a 15-pound CO
2
extinguisher is 4 to 6 feet from the outer end of the horn.Incontinuousoperation,the15-poundCO
2
extinguisherwill be expended in approximately 40 seconds.
WARNING
Shock from static electricity can beavoided if you ground the cylinder to the deck when discharging CO
2
.ManyshipshaveaCO
2
transferunittorechargethe15-pound cylinders from 50-pound CO
2
cylinders in awell-ventilated space. The CO
2
transfer unit (fig. 5-4)consists of an electric motor, a pump, a high-pressurehose,acontrolvalve,adapters,andfittings.Thetransfer5-3
HORNASSEMBLYHANDLECYLINDERVALVE
DCf0503
Figure 5-3. 15-pound carbon dioxide fire extinguisher.

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