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Basic ANSYS 2D Flow Visualization around a NACA Aerofoil

Basic ANSYS 2D Flow Visualization around a NACA Aerofoil

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Published by Sathya Senadheera
REF: Cornell University ANSYS meshing tutorials https://confluence.cornell.edu/display/SIMULATION/ANSYS+WB+-+Airfoil+-+Geometry

Partial chapter of Group Dissertation (Concept LPG Aircraft) - June 2013 - Kingston University London - Final Year BEng Aerospace Engineering (Hons)
REF: Cornell University ANSYS meshing tutorials https://confluence.cornell.edu/display/SIMULATION/ANSYS+WB+-+Airfoil+-+Geometry

Partial chapter of Group Dissertation (Concept LPG Aircraft) - June 2013 - Kingston University London - Final Year BEng Aerospace Engineering (Hons)

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Published by: Sathya Senadheera on Jun 07, 2013
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09/08/2013

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2D Flow Visualisation around the Aerofoil at Varying Angles of Attack 
Nomenclature
Cp
 –
Pressure coefficientCl- Lift coefficientCd- Drag coefficientAOA- Angle of attackUinf- Velocity of fluid at inletUx
 –
x component of free stream velocityUy - y component of free stream velocityCr
 –
root chordc- Speed of sound
γ –
Specific heat ratioRe- Reynolds numberR- Universal gas constantT- TemperatureM- Mach number
Ρ –
Pressure
ρ
- densityFx/Fy
 –
force in the x axis/yaxis
Introduction
The root aero
foil that was chosen for the aircraft’s wing configuration in the conceptual design stage
of this project was a NACA 38012. It is for this NACA aerofoil that the 2D simulation is performed on.In this section the Mach number and Pressure contour plots around the aerofoil will be obtained forvarying angles of attack as the aerofoil reaches stall. The Cp will also be obtained in the form of a
 
plot of Cp against x-position on the aerofoil. The Cd and Cl values for each angle of attack obtainedfrom the ANSYS simulations will be compared with values from Java-foil and X-foil.
Figure 1 - The co-ordinates of the aerofoil plotted on MS Excel
The co-ordinates obtained by Javafoil is imported into an excel file and plotted, to make sure thereare no gaps; points can be modified to close any such gaps. The original co-ordinates of the aerofoilare also multiplied by the root chord length in order to scale the aerofoil into the actual size used inthe design. The figure below shows a section of the finalized points, complete set can be found inthe appendix page___
Figure 2 - Figure showing modified co-ordinates based on the Cr length
Determining Mesh Quality
Ideally the mesh for the flow domain should have a minimum orthogonal quality of 0.1 or amaximum Skewness of 0.96.
 
 
Figure 3
from lecture notes “3 Mesh
-Intro_14.0_L-
07_Mesh_Quality”
 The figure above shows the mesh spectrum that helps to determine the quality of the mesh. Oncethe initial sizing conditions have been added to the mesh, it is important to change the mesh tofurther increase the degree of quality.
Creating Geometry and Mesh
Aerofoil was inserted as a 3D curve, and a surface was created from edges. A C-mesh was thencreated around the aerofoil. Initially the domain dimensions, were R=70m and L=70m.The figure below details what the previously mentioned R and L parameters are and how theydetermine domain size.
Figure 4 -Dimensions of the flow domain

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