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offshore drilling units by majid hamedynia

offshore drilling units by majid hamedynia

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Published by: majid on Apr 25, 2009
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Offshore drilling units
Technical report on jack up
By:
  Majid hamedinia
 
First version April2009
 
 
 
Introduction
Natural oil leaks have been present since before the days of dinosaurs about 200 million years ago.Lighter oils evaporate in air leaving behind the heavier oils in “tar pits”. People have used thisnaturally occurring oil since the beginning of recorded human history. Oil can also be made fromanimal fat, and it is not always clear whether mention of oil in ancient records refers to oil from theground or from animals.Ancient Greek texts describe how they would pour oil onto the sea to set fire to their enemies'fleets. The Bible refers to a thick form of oil called "Pitch" which was used to waterproof Noah'sark and the baby Moses' basket. The American Indians also used pitch to waterproof canoes andmedicines. These examples are probably uses of oil from the ground.The word “Petroleum” comes from the Greek word for rock and the Latin for oil or fat. It literallymeans “oil that comes from rock”. Petra / petros (Greek) = rockoleum, (Latin) = oil / fat Crude oilwas pumped from the ground in Sichuan, China, 2500 years ago, but the history of oil wells as weknow them today is much younger.A brief history starting in 347 A.D: 347 Oil wells are drilled in China up to 800 feet deep using bitsattached to bamboo poles. 1264 Mining of natural oil seeps in medieval Persia is witnessed byMarco Polo on his travels through Baku. 1500’s Seep oil collected in the Carpathian Mountains of Poland is used to light street lamps. 1594 Oil wells are hand dug at Baku, Persia up to 35 meters(115 feet) deep. 1735 Oil sands are mined and the oil extracted at Pechelbronn field in Alsace,France. 1815 Oil is produced in United States as an undesirable by-product from brine wells inPennsylvania. 1848 First modern oil well is drilled in Asia, on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku, by Russian engineer F.N. Semyenov. 1854 First oil wells in Europe are drilled 30- to 50-meters deep at Bóbrka, Poland by Ignacy Lukasiewicz. Oil historians in the USA give credit for thefirst modern commercial oil well to Colonel Edwin L. Drake. His well reached a depth of 22m (72-ft). It was drilled in “Oil Creek” near the town of Titusville, slightly east of Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania, USA and started producing oil on August 28, 1859. There were no automobiles inthose days; the main market for petroleum was for medicine. It was called Rock Oil and sold forabout $40 a barrel, which is about the same as a barrel of oil costs today, so it would have beenworth a lot of money in 1859. There are several other claims for “the first oil well”, including a welldrilled in 1858 in Wietze, Germany.Iranian called it "Well Number One". A sign proudly proclaims the spot where the first middle-eastern oil was discovered 100 years ago. The oil derrick is still there - it produced oil for 70 years.The town itself - Masjid e Suleiman - in south west Iran, is still an oil town. The countryside is
 
 criss-crossed with the pipelines that bring oil from each wellhead to the refinery or the exportterminal. But much else has changed. For nearly 50 years the Iranian oil industry was controlled bythe British Anglo-Persian Oil company. You can still see the names of British companies on someof the older plant. But the British only paid $75,000 (£40,000) for the original 60-year concession -and a small share of the profits. To this day, that is the source of enormous bitterness in Iran. Britishpresence "No fair British person can be proud of that part of the history of the UK in Iran".Iran still provides nearly 5% of the world's oil needs. It is strange then, that an industry of suchglobal importance should be so isolated.The first offshore oil well was in the bayous (swamps) of Louisiana, USA during the 1950s. Thefirst drilling in open sea was done in 1955 for Shell Oil in the Gulf of Mexico just south of NewOrleans. This used a barge with a drill rig attached named “Mr. Charlie", which continued to drill inthe Gulf of Mexico for 32 years. Whit
How to exploit
Drilling for oil requires extensive planning and a good amount of capital to invest. The project willrequire you to work with contractors, financiers, land owners, geologists and engineers. Allactivities for exploitation of oil can be mentioned in some steps.The oil is found in the reservoir rock under the ground several hundred meters down. The mostconventional conformation in which oil is found is called the folding movement where the earth hasmoved inward to form an upward fold.
 
To find oil, geologists are hired who are experts in analyzingsurface texture, features, soil types and core samples. The geologists also employ different hightechnology instruments for example, magnetometer, gravity meters, seismic instruments usingshock wave technology, and satellite pictures to find flowing oil under the rocks of the Earth.When geologists determine a good site it is surveyed for boundaries and environmental studies.Lease is signed and the legal right to the land is obtained from the local authorities.A reserve pit is made for the debris coming out from the drilling. The land is prepared for the rigand cleared off of trees and vegetations. Several holes are made for the rig to fit in. A conductorpipe is made which is the top portion of the main hole and is larger in diameter than the rest of thehole.Once the oil rig is installed, it is connected with several other components. These componentsguarantee the normal functioning of the equipment and safety in case of unexpected pressure releasefrom the bottom of the soil. The hole is dug and casing is installed around it to prevent it fromcollapsing.

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