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Published by Yuvasyini Krish

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Published by: Yuvasyini Krish on Jun 07, 2013
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Chapter 6: Effective Listening
Chapter Goals
Understand the complexity of the listening process
Recognize social and personal obstacles to listening
Identify your personal style of listening
Describe several habits of poor listening
Explain how culture affects listening
Utilize a variety of techniques to enhance your listening effectiveness.
I. The Importance of ListeningA. Our text focuses on those who can hear physiologically, but know that manyindividuals rely on the third most popular language in the US that uses a differentcommunication system: American Sign Language (ASL).B. There is a difference between hearing and listening.II. Hear Today: The Hearing ProcessA. Hearing occurs when a sound wave hits an eardrum.B. Hearing is the physical process of letting in audible stimuli without focusingon the stimuli.III. Listen Up: The Listening ProcessA. Unlike hearing, listening is a learned communication skill.B. Listening is the dynamic transactional process of receiving, recalling, rating,and responding to stimuli and/or messages from another.C. Receiving – the verbal and nonverbal acknowledgement of communication.D. Recalling – understanding a message, storing it for future encounters, andremembering it later.1. repeat information2. use mnemonic devices3. visualize items as you listen to them4. chunk informationE. Rating – evaluating or assessing a message.F. Responding – provide observable feedback IV. The Barriers: Why we don’t listenA. Noise – physical distractionsB. Message overload – when more messages are received than can be processed.C. Message complexity – messages that are filled with details, unfamiliar language, and challenging arguments.D. Lack of training – both the academic and corporate environments only offer ahandful of opportunities to learn about listening.90
E. Preoccupation – on occasion, everyone gets caught up in thinking about his or her own life experiences and everyday troubles at the expense of the presentconversation.1. conversational narcissism – engaging in an extreme amount of self-focusing to the exclusion of another person.F. Listening gap – the time difference between your mental ability to interpretwords and the speed at which they arrive to your brain.V. Poor Listening HabitsA. Selective listening – respond to some parts of a message and reject others.B. Talkaholism – compulsively talking and hogging the conversational stage andmonopolizing encounters.C. Pseudolistening – faking attention (the classroom is a classic location for this!).D. Gap filling – listeners who think they can correctly guess the rest of the story.E. Defensive listening – when people view innocent comments as personal attacksor hostile criticismsF. Ambushing – people who listen carefully to a message and then use theinformation later to attack the individual.VI. Styles of ListeningA. People-centered listening style – being concerned with other people’s feelingsor emotions.B. Action-centered listening style – listeners who want messages to be highlyorganized, concise, and error-free.C. Content-centered listening style – focusing on the facts and details of amessage.D. Time-centered listening style – want messages to be presented succinctly anddiscourage wordy explanations.E. Culture and listening process – all of our interactions are culturally-based, thuscultural differences affect the listening process (Brownell, 2002)VII.Choices for Effective ListeningA. Evaluate your current skillsB. Prepare to listen.C. Provide empathic responses.D. Use nonjudgmental feedback.E. Practice active listening.
Terms for Review
action-centered listening styleactive listeningambushingAmerican Sign Language (ASL)chunkingcontent-centered listening styleconversational narcissismdefensive listening91
dialogue enhancersempathyfactsgap fillershearinginferenceslisteninglistening gaplistening stylemessage overloadmindlessmultitaskingnonjudgmental feedback opinions paraphrasing people-centered listening style physical distractions pseudolistenratingrecallingreceivingrespondingsecond-guessselective listeningtalkaholicstime-centered listening styleworking memory theory
Student Activities
1. Directions:
Read the statements that follow and decide for yourself what the answers are. Now join two or three other students and discuss each statement as a group. For each statement,arrive at a consensus. However, during the group discussion, each person should paraphrase thecomments of the person who just spoke before he or she is allowed to make any new comments(this exercise borrowed from Titsworth, 2003).A. People under nineteen should not be allowed to get married.B. Subjective comments should be eliminated in college evaluations.C. All students should be required to take a speech course to graduate.After you’ve reached your decisions, discuss the listening behaviors in the group. Did anyoneappear to be pseudolistening? Was anyone a gap filler? Was anyone particularly people-centered? How about content-centered or time-centered?92

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