Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
P. 1
Description of Viscoplastic Flow Accounting for Shear Banding

Description of Viscoplastic Flow Accounting for Shear Banding

Ratings: (0)|Views: 94 |Likes:
Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna, R.B. Pecherski
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 52, 217-222, 2007
Z. Nowak, P. Perzyna, R.B. Pecherski
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 52, 217-222, 2007

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Ryszard B. Pecherski on Apr 25, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/25/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Zoduc` 0= =<<9 Fssu` =
R( HOYGE
$ \( \@]RVHG
$ ]( M( \đKA@][EF
N@[K]F\^FOH OJ ZF[KO\DG[^FK JDOY GKKOPH^FHI JO] [A@G] MGHNFHIO\F[ D@\EO\DG[^VKRH@IO \ŇVHFđKFG R PNRFGŇ@C \G[C ŒKFHGHFG
^a` sumb`kt oj ta` stuny fs kohk`rh`n wfta udtrg ﬇h` irgfh`n !uji& ghn hghokrystgddfh` c`tgds !hk#c`tgds&( @xp`rfc`htgdfhv`stfigtfohs oj ta` m`agvfour oj suka cgt`rfgds uhn`r qugsfstgtfk gs w`dd gs nyhgcfk dognfhi kohnftfohs r`dgt`n wfta cfkro#skopfk oms`rvgtfohs saow tagt fh cghy kgs`s ta` nocfhght c`kaghfsc oj pdgstfk strgfh fs cudtfskgd` n`v`dopc`ht oj sa`grn`jorcgtfoh con`s ‛ kgdd`n sa`gr mghnfhi( ^a` kocpr`a`hsfv` nfskussfoh oj ta`s` pa`hoc`hg fh uji ghn hk#c`tgds fs ifv`hfh U7S$ U=S ghn U;S$ wa`r` ft ags m``h saowh tagt ta` n`jorcgtfoh con` oj hghokrystgddfh` cgt`rfgds kaghi`s gs ta` irgfh sfz`n`kr`gs`s fhto ta` udtrg﬇h` r`ifoh( Jor scgdd`r irgfh sfz`s !
4
;<< hc& sa`gr mghn n`v`dopc`ht okkurs fcc`nfgt`dy gjt`r ta`ohs`t oj pdgstfk ﬍ow( [fihf﬇kght strgfh#rgt` n`p`hn`hk` oj ta` ﬍ow str`ss$ pgrtfkudgrdy gt afia strgfh rgt`s wgs gdso `cpagsfz`n(Our omb`ktfv` fs to propos` g h`w n`skrfptfoh oj vfskopdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh$ wafka gkkouhts jor ta` oms`rv`n sa`gr mghnfhi(Zfskopdgstfkfty con`d propos`n `grdf`r my \ ` r z y h g U>S$ U0S wgs `xt`hn`n fh orn`r to n`skrfm` ta` sa`gr mghnfhi kohtrfmutfoh(^a` sa`gr mghnfhi kohtrfmutfoh juhktfoh$ wafka wgs fhtronuk`n jorc`rdy my \ Ė k a ` r s e f U:S$ U9S ghn gppdf`n fh kohtfhuucpdgstfkfty gkkouhtfhi jor sa`gr mghnfhi fh U1S ghn U6S gs w`dd gs fh U7<S ghn U77S pdgys pfvotgd rod` fh ta` vfskopdgstfkfty con`d(^a` n`rfv`n kohstftutfv` `qugtfohs w`r` fn`htf﬇`n ghn v`rf﬇`n wfta gppdfkgtfoh oj `xp`rfc`htgd ngtg provfn`n fh pgp`r U=S$wa`r` qugsfstgtfk ghn nyhgcfk kocpr`ssfoh t`sts oj uji ghn hghokrystgddfh` froh sp`kfc`hs oj g wfn` rghi` oj c`gh irgfhsfz` w`r` r`port`n( ^a` possfmfdftf`s oj ta` gppdfkgtfoh oj ta` propos`n n`skrfptfoh jor ota`r uji ghn hk#c`tgds gr` nfskuss`n(
E`yworns
2 vfskopdgstfk ﬍ow$ sa`gr mghnfhi$ cfkro#sa`gr mghns$ hghokrystgddfh` c`tgds$ hk#c`tgds$ udtrg ﬇h` irgfh !uji&c`tgds\rz`ncfot`c stunfûw sĀ nromhozfgrhfst` orgz hghoerystgdfkzh` c`tgd`( Mgnghfg noŕwfgnkzgdh` zgkaowghfg sfĖ tgefkacgt`rfgōûw w wgruhegka omkfĀŴ`Ŏ qugsfstgtykzhyka orgz nyhgcfkzhyka$ w powfĀzghfu z oms`rwgkbgcf cferoseopowycf$wyegzubĀ$ Ŵ` w wf`du wypgnegka nocfhubĀkyc c`kaghfzc`c onesztgōk`hfg pdgstykzh`io b`st wf`dosegdowy rozwûb jorcŕkfhghfg ‛ zwghy zwob`c pgscgcf ŕkfhghfg( Yykz`rpubĀkg nyseusbg tyka zbgwfse zgwgrtg b`st w U7S$ U=S f U;S$ inzf` wyeg#zgho$ Ŵ` jorcg onesztgōk`hfg w cgt`rfgōgka nromhozfgrhfstyka zcf`hfg sfĖ$ ef`ny rozpgtrub`cy cgt`rfgōy o korgz chf`bszyczfgrhf`( Ndg cgt`rfgōûw o ŕr`nhf`b wf`deoŕkf zfgrhg chf`bsz`b hfŴ ;<< hc oms`rwub` sfĖ rozwûb pgsc ŕkfhghfg zgrgz po fhfkbgkbfonesztgōk`hfg pdgstykzh`io( \oner`ŕdoho tgeŴ` zhgkzĀky wpōyw prĖneoŕkf onesztgōk`hfg hg hgprĖŴ`hf` pōyhfĖkfg( Hgszyc k`d`c b`st propozykbg how`io opfsu onesztgōk`hfg d`peopdgstykzh`io$ w etûryc uwzidĖnhfg sfĖ unzfgō oms`rwowgh`io rozwobu pgscŕkfhghfg( Con`d d`peopdgstykzhoŕkf propohowghy wkz`ŕhf`b prz`z \ ` r z y h Ė U>S$ U0S zostgō rozsz`rzohy z wyeorzystghf`copfsu unzfgōu pgsc ŕkfhghfg( \onstgwowĀ rodĖ w propohowghyc con`du d`peopdgstykzhoŕkf onirywg juhekbg unzfgōu pgscŕkfhghfg wprowgnzohg prz`z \ Ė k a ` r s e f ` i o U:S$ U9S f zgstosowghg w eohtyhugdh`b t`orff pdgstykzhoŕkf z unzfgō`c pgscŕkfhghfg w U1S f U6S orgz w U7<S f U77S( Noeohgho fn`hty﬇egkbf orgz w`ry﬇egkbf wyprowgnzohyka rûwhgŎ eohstytutywhyka zzgstosowghf`c nghyka noŕwfgnkzgdhyka otrzycghyka w t`stgka qugsfstgtykzh`io f nyhgcfkzh`io ŕkfseghfg ndg s`rff prûm`e wy#eohghyka z nromhozfgrhfst`io f hghoerystgdfkzh`io Ŵ`dgzg o sz`roefc zger`sf` ŕr`nhf`b wf`deoŕkf zfgrhg U=S( \rz`nyseutowghocoŴdfwoŕkf zgstosowghfg propohowgh`io opfsu no fhhyka c`tgdf o munowf` nromhozfgrhfst`b f hghoerystgdfkzh`b(
7( Fhtronuktfoh
^a` sumb`kt oj our stuny fs kohk`rh`n wfta udtrg ﬇h`irgfh`n !uji& ghn hghokrystgddfh` c`tgds !hk#c`tgds&( @x#p`rfc`htgd fhv`stfigtfohs nfskuss`n `(i( my C ` y ` r s`t gd( U7S ghn B f g `t gd( U=S r`v`gd tagt hghokrystgddfh`cgt`rfgds `xafmft v`ry afia yf`dn str`hita$ pr`sucgmdynu` to ta` irgfh#mouhngry str`hita`hfhi ehowh gs ta`A g d d#\ ` t k a `﬌`kt( ^afs fs i`h`rgddy tru` gt d`gst tota` irgfh sfz`s$ wafka gr` hot scgdd`r gs ta` t`hta oj hghoc`t`r( ^a` nfcfhfsafhi irgfh sfz` d`gns to ta` sftu#gtfoh tagt nfsdokgtfoh kohtrodd`n c`kaghfscs oj fh`dgstfkn`jorcgtfoh m`koc` afhn`r`n ghn h`w nfsdokgtfoh#d`ssc`kaghfscs gr` gktfvgt`n( ^a`h nf﬌`r`ht efhns oj irgfh
FH[^F^P^@ OJ JPHNGC@H^GD ^@KAHODOIFKGD ]@[@G]KA \G[$ <<#<>6 YG][RGYG$ =7 ŒYFđ^OE]RV[EG [^]($ \ODGHN
 
mouhngry gkkoccongtfoh U7S ghn sa`gr mghnfhi U7S$ U=S$U;S gr` r`port`n( @xp`rfc`htgd fhv`stfigtfohs oj ta` m`#agvfour oj suka cgt`rfgds uhn`r qugsfstgtfk gs w`dd gsnyhgcfk dognfhi kohnftfohs r`dgt`n wfta cfkroskopfk om#s`rvgtfohs saow tagt fh cghy kgs`s ta` nocfhght c`kag#hfsc oj pdgstfk strgfh fs cudtfskgd` n`v`dopc`ht oj sa`grn`jorcgtfoh con`s ‛ kgdd`n sa`gr mghnfhi( ^a` koc#pr`a`hsfv` nfskussfoh oj ta`s` pa`hoc`hg fh uji ghnhk#c`tgds fs ifv`h fh U7S$ U=S ghn U;S$ wa`r` ft ags m``hsaowh tagt ta` n`jorcgtfoh con` oj hghokrystgddfh` cg#t`rfgds kaghi`s gs ta` irgfh sfz` n`kr`gs`s fhto ta` udtrg#﬇h` r`ifoh( ]`igrnfhi hk#J` U=S$ jor scgdd`r irgfh sfz`s!
4
;<< hc& sa`gr mghn n`v`dopc`ht okkurs fcc`nf#gt`dy gjt`r ta` ohs`t oj pdgstfk ﬍ow( [fihf﬇kght strgfh#rgt`n`p`hn`hk` oj ta` ﬍ow str`ss$ pgrtfkudgrdy gt afia strgfhrgt`s wgs gdso `cpagsfz`n(^a` gfc oj ta` pgp`r fs to propos` g h`w n`skrfptfohoj vfskopdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh$ wafka gkkouhts jor ta` om#s`rv`n sa`gr mghnfhi pa`hoc`hg( Zfskopdgstfkfty con`dwfta gh ov`rstr`ss juhktfoh propos`n `grdf`r my \ ` r z y #h g U>S$ U0S wgs `xt`hn`n fh orn`r to n`skrfm` ta` h`wc`kaghfsc oj fh`dgstfk n`jorcgtfoh( ^a` ta`or`tfkgd n`#skrfptfoh oj cudtfskgd` af`rgrkay oj sa`gr dokgdfzgtfohcon`s pr`s`ht`n jorc`rdy my \ Ė k a ` r s e f fh U:S$ U9S$U1S ghn ta` h`w kohk`pt oj sa`gr mghnfhi kohtrfmutfohjuhktfoh fh ta` rgt` oj pdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh gppdf`n fh koh#tfhuuc pdgstfkfty gkkouhtfhi jor sa`gr mghnfhi fh U:S$U1S $ U6S$ U77S ghn fn`htf﬇`n jor podykrystgddfh` Ku fhU7<S ghn U7=S pdgys pfvotgd rod` fh ta` vfskopdgstfkftycon`d( ^a` n`rfv`n kohstftutfv` `qugtfohs w`r` fn`htf#﬇`n ghn v`rf﬇`n wfta gppdfkgtfoh oj `xp`rfc`htgd ng#tg oj qugsfstgtfk ghn nyhgcfk kocpr`ssfoh t`sts$ cgn`jor g wfn` rghi` oj uji ghn hghokrystgddfh` froh sp`kf#c`hs oj nf﬌`r`ht c`gh irgfh sfz`$ wafka w`r` provfn`nfh U=S( ^a` possfmfdftf`s oj ta` gppdfkgtfoh oj ta` pro#pos`n n`skrfptfoh jor ota`r uji ghn hk#c`tgds gr` nfs#kuss`n( Gdtaouia kohstftutfv` con`ddfhi oj str`hita ghnfh`dgstfk m`agvfour oj hghocgt`rfgds fs stfdd gt ta` m`#ifhhfhi oj fts n`v`dopc`ht$ soc` gtt`cpts to propos`kohstftutfv` n`skrfptfoh kgh m` c`htfoh`n( Jor `xgc#pd`$ fh U7;S irgfh mouhngry c`kaghfscs gr` `cpag#sfz`n ghn g ^g y d o r#typ` pags` cfxtur` con`d wgspropos`n jor kgdkudgtfoh oj str`ss to n`skrfm` ta` n`#jorcgtfoh m`agvfour oj g hghokrystgddfh` c`tgddfk cgt`#rfgds( Fh U7>S ghota`r kohstftutfv` con`d jor hghokrys#tgddfh` c`tgds wgs n`rfv`n$ fh wafka g koop`rgtfv` irgfhmouhngry c`kaghfscs pdgy krukfgd rod`( ^a` cgfh gs#sucptfoh fs cgn` tagt pdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh fs gkkocco#ngt`n gt ta` prfcgrfdy irgfh mouhngrf`s ghn ta` fhs`rtfohghn rotgtfoh prok`ss`s gr` kohsfn`r`n toi`ta`r gs g ko#op`rgtfv` n`jorcgtfoh c`kaghfscs( ^a` pgp`r provfn`sta` ov`rvf`w oj `grdf`r gtt`cpts fh gkkouhtfhi jor irgfhmouhngry c`kaghfscs( ^a` pgp`r U70S pr`s`hts$ oh ta`ota`r aghn$ g pa`hoc`hodoifkgd gpprogka$ confjyfhita` propos`n `grdf`r vfskopdgstfk con`d my fhkdunfhi gmf#dfh`gr A g d d#\ ` t k a typ` r`dgtfoh to korr`dgt` wftata` r`spohs` oj hghokrystgddfh` gducfhuc ghn froh( ]`#k`htdy$ g vfskopdgstfk cfkroc`kaghfkgd con`ds jor ta`yf`dn str`hita oj hghokrystgddfh` cgt`rfgds w`r` n`rfv`nfh U7:S$ U79S ghn U71S( Ft wgs `cpagsfz`n fh U7:S tagtwa`h ta` irgfh nfc`hsfohs gpprogka hghoc`tr` sfz`s$ta` voduc` jrgktfohs oj irgfh mouhngrf`s fhkr`gs` ta`irgfh mouhngry r`ifohs ghn stgrt to pdgy gh gktfv` rod`fh gkkoccongtfhi n`jorcgtfoh( ^a` irgfh mouhngry gk#koccongtfoh cgy fhvodv` dokgd sau﬎fhi oj gtocs$ irgfhmouhngry sdfnfhi ghn nf﬌`r`ht nf﬌usfv` prok`ss`s( Gd#so pr`ssur` ghn irgfh sfz` n`p`hn`hky oj yf`dn str`hitaw`r` nfskuss`n( ^a` pgp`rs U79S ghn U71S gr` n`vot`n tota`or`tfkgd n`skrfptfoh ghn kocputgtfohgd ghgdysfs oj fh#`dgstfk n`jorcgtfoh oj pown`r#prok`ss`n hk#c`tgds( ^a`n`tgfd ghgdysfs oj cfkroc`kaghfkgd c`kaghfscs kohtrod#dfhi fh`dgstfk m`agvfour oj cgt`rfgd kgh ifv` paysfkgd co#tfvgtfoh jor our n`skrfptfoh mgs`n oh two c`kaghfscs oj vfskopdgstfk ﬍ow2 nfsdokgtfoh kohtrodd`n sdfps ghn sa`grmghnfhi(
=( Kohstftutfv` con`ddfhi
^a` vfskopdgstfkfty ﬍ow dgw propos`n my \`rzyhgU>S$ U0S fs gppdf`n
N
π
 p
3
− 
==˖
λ 
π
 ps
°
$
°
3
7
− 
=
s
ώ
$
!=(7&˖
λ 
π
 ps
3
˖
λ 
<
 B 
=
s
7
7
 N
jor
=
s
8
<
$
=
3
 
7=
ώ
2
ώ
!=(=&ghn˖
λ 
π
 ps
3
< jor
=
s
<
$
!=(;&wa`r`
N
π
 p
fs ta` rgt` oj vfskopdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh$
ώ
n`hot`s n`vfgtorfk E f r k a a o jj str`ss ghn ˖
λ 
π
 ps
fs ta`vfskopdgstfk sa`gr strgfh rgt` pronuk`n my ta` c`kaghfscoj nfsdokgtfoh c`nfgt`n krystgddoirgpafk sdfps$ wafd`
s
fs ta` korr`spohnfhi qugsfstgtfk yf`dn sa`gr str`hita( ^a`sycmods ˖
λ 
<
ghn
N
n`hot` cgt`rfgd kohstghts( ^a` sa`grstrgfh rgt` !=(=& fs kohtrodd`n my gh ov`rstr`ss juhktfohto m` sp`kf﬇`n jor g pgrtfkudgr cgt`rfgd( Fh our kgs` ta`pow`r#dfe` ov`rstr`ss juhktfoh fs gssuc`n(Ft fs w`dd ehowh jgkt tagt fh hk#c`tgds$ fh pgrtfkudgrfj ta`y gr` pown`r kohsodfngt`n$ pdgstfk ﬍ow fs fh i`h`rgdpr`ssur` n`p`hn`ht$ pdgstfkgddy nfdgtght ghn hoh#horcgd$kj( `(i( U71S( Gh gtt`cpt to gppdy ta` M u r z y Ŏ s e fyf`dn kohnftfoh gkkouhtfhi jor pr`ssur` s`hsftfvfty ghnstr`hita nf﬌`r`htfgd `﬌`kt wgs pr`s`ht`n fh U76S ghn
 
U=<S$ kj( gdso ta` jortakocfhi pgp`r U=7S( ^a` qugsfstgt#fk A u m ` r#C f s ` s yf`dn kohnftfoh
ώ
2
ώ
3
=
=
s
fsgssuc`n a`r` jor sfcpdfkfty gs g ﬇rst gpproxfcgtfoh(^afs fs cor` suftgmd` jor uji ghn hk#c`tgds cghujgktur`nwfta gppdfkgtfoh oj s`v`r` pdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh prok`ss`s(^a` r`sudts oj ta` n`rfv`n n`skrfptfoh oj ta` qugsfstgt#fk ghn nyhgcfk ﬍ow str`ss kgh m` gppdf`n jor nf﬌`r#`ht dognfhi pgtas ghn i`h`rgd str`ss stgt`s wfta us` oj ta` M u r z y Ŏ s e f yf`dn kohnftfoh U=7S( Fh n`rfvgtfohoj vfskopdgstfkfty ﬍ow dgw jor uji ghn hk#c`tgds$ ta`gssucptfoh oj ta` op`rgtfoh oj two c`kaghfscs2 nfsdo#kgtfoh c`nfgt`n krystgddoirgpafk sdfps fh ta` krystgddfh`irgfh fht`rfors ghn sa`gr mghnfhi fh ta` fht`rkrystgddfh`irgfh#mouhngry r`ifohs pdgy pfvotgd rod`( ^a` kohtrfmu#tfoh oj mota c`kaghfscs fh ta` rgt` oj pdgstfk n`jorcg#tfoh wgs stunf`n `grdf`r my \ Ė k a ` r s e f fh U:S$ U9S$ U1Sghn U6S wa`r` ta` prok`ss oj sa`gr mghnfhi wgs fn`gdfz`ncgta`cgtfkgddy gs g af`rgrkay oj sfhiudgr surjgk`s( ^a`sfhiudgr surjgk` oj orn`r z`ro korr`spohns to ta` dokgdp`rturmgtfoh oj ta` cfkroskopfk nfspdgk`c`ht ﬇`dn pro#nuk`n my ta` pgssgi` oj g sfhid` cfkro#sa`gr mghn( ^a`pgssgi` oj dgri` hucm`r oj cfkro#sa`gr mghns wftafh ta`gktfv` zoh` oj ta` kdust`r$ wafka ta` cfkro#sa`gr mghnsjorc$ scoota`s out ta` nfskohtfhufty oh ta` cfkro#d`v`dghn r`sudts fh ta` p`rturmgtfoh oj ta` c`zoskopfk nfs#pdgk`c`ht ﬇`dn trgv`dfhi wfta ta` sp``n
s
$ wafka pro#nuk`s g nfskohtfhufty oj ta` c`zoskopfk v`dokfty ﬇d`n
v
 C 
fh ta` ]Z@ ft trgv`rs`s( ^afs korr`spohns to ta` sfh#iudgr surjgk` oj orn`r oh`$ kgdd`n gdso ta` surjgk` oj strohi nfskohtfhufty( Gkkornfhi to U==S ghn U=;S$ ta` sur#jgk` oj strohi nfskohtfhufty oj v`dokfty ﬇`dn jud﬇dds ta`prop`rtf`s oj g vort`x sa``t wfta ta` bucp nfskohtfhuftyU
v
 C 
S
3
s
s
$ wa`r`
s
fs ta` uhft tghi`ht to ta` nfskohtf#hufty surjgk` U9S( Gh `xt`hsfoh oj ta` ehowh gv`rgifhiprok`nur` ov`r ta` ]Z@ trgv`rs`n my g strohi nfskohtf#hufty surjgk` d`n to ta` cgkroskopfk c`gsur` oj v`dokftyirgnf`ht pronuk`n fh ta` kours` oj `dgstfk#pdgstfk n`jor#cgtfoh gkkouhtfhi jor sa`gr mghnfhi( Gs ft wgs c`h#tfoh`n fh U77S$ ta` proir`ssfoh oj dgri` hucm`r oj kdus#t`rs oj cfkro#sa`gr mghns `xt`hnfhi ta` r`ifoh oj sa`grmghnfhi kgh m` fn`gdfz`n cgta`cgtfkgddy my c`ghs oj ta` sfhiudgr surjgk` oj orn`r two propgigtfhi tarouiata` cgkro#`d`c`ht oj ta` kohtfhuuc gs gh gkk`d`rgtfohwgv`( ^a` gppdfkgtfoh oj ta` ta`ory oj stgtfohgry gkk`d#`rgtfoh wgv`s op`hs ta` possfmfdfty oj ta` ghgdysfs oj pdgstfk ﬍ow fhstgmfdftf`s fh r`dgtfoh wfta sa`gr mghnfhi(Gs g r`sudt oj ta` c`htfoh`n gmov` stunf`s ta` joddowfhignnftfv` n`kocposftfoh oj ta` rgt` oj fh`dgstfk n`jorcg#tfoh wgs omtgfh`n2
N
π
 p
3
N
π
 ps
%
N
π
 p[M
!=(>&ghn ta` skgdgr sa`gr mghnfhi kohtrfmutfoh juhktfoh wgsn`﬇h`n2
 j 
[M
3
N
π
 p[M
N
π
 p
$
G
3
− 
G
¹
G
3
 
 G
f
 G
f
$
!=(0&wa`r`
G
fs g sycc`trfk s`kohn orn`r t`hsor$ wafd`
N
π
 ps
fs ta` rgt` oj vfskopdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh pronuk`n my nfs#dokgtfoh c`nfgt`n krystgddoirgpafk sdfps ghn
N
π
 p[M
n`hot`sta` rgt` oj vfskopdgstfk n`jorcgtfoh pronuk`n my sa`grmghnfhi( Gs nfskuss`n fh U77S$ gcohi cghy possfmd` r`#gdfzgtfohs oj sa`gr mghnfhi$ oh` kgh sfhid` out ta` iroupoj prok`ss`s kagrgkt`rfzfhi wfta ta` sgc` kohtrfmutfoh oj two sycc`trfk sa`gr mghnfhi syst`cs
!7&
[M
3
!=&
[M
( Fh ta`kgs` oj proportfohgd dognfhi pgtas ta` totgd vfskopdgstfksa`gr strgfh rgt` kgh m` `xpr`ss`n gs joddows2˖
λ 
π
 p
3
˖
λ 
π
 ps
%
˖
λ 
π
 p[M
!=(:&ghn nu` to
[M
3
˖
λ 
π
 p[M
˖
λ 
π
 p
w` agv`˖
λ 
π
 p
!7
[M
&
3
˖
λ 
π
 ps
$
[M
U<
$
7&
$
!=(9&wagt d`gns gkkornfhi to !=(=& to ta` joddowfhi kohstftu#tfv` r`dgtfoh jor ta` vfskopdgstfk sa`gr strgfh rgt` koh#trodd`n my ta` nfskuss`n c`kaghfscs oj krystgddoirgpafksdfp ghn sa`gr mghnfhi2˖
λ 
π
 p
3
˖
λ 
π
 p
<
!7
[M
&
 B 
=
s
7
7
 
 N
jor
=
s
8
<
(
!=(1&Fhv`rtfhi !=(1& ifv`s ta` r`dgtfoh jor ta` nyhgcfk yf`dnkohnftfoh
 B 
=
3
s
3
s
7
%
˖
λ 
π
 p
!7
[M
&˖
λ 
<
 N
(
!=(6&Fh ta` jortakocfhi pgp`r U=>S ta` r`dgtfoh jor ta` ny#hgcfk yf`dn sa`gr str`hita
wgs n`rfv`n jor ta` ]Z@fh wafka ta` c`kaghfscs oj krystgddoirgpafk sdfp ghnsa`gr mghnfhi gr` op`rgtfv`( ^a` n`rfvgtfoh fs mgs`n ohta` mgdghk` oj ta` suc oj ta` rgt` oj nfssfpgtfoh pro#nuk`n my `gka c`kaghfsc ghn ta` rgt` oj nfssfpgtfoh oj ta` n`jorcgtfoh oj waod` ]Z@( Ft fs uhn`r gssucptfohtagt ta` cgt`rfgd r`v`gds ho wore agrn`hfhi( Ft fs gdsogssuc`n tagt ta` vgdu` oj ta` tar`saodn str`ss oj sa`grmghnfhi fs h`idfifmd` fh kocpgrfsoh wfta ta` vgdu` oj 
s
( Gs g r`sudt$ ta` joddowfhi r`dgtfoh wgs omtgfh`n2
3
!7
[M
&
7
[M
s
$
!=(7<&wa`r`
[M
3
[M
fs ta` voduc` jrgktfoh oj ta` r`ifohoj ]Z@ fh wafka sa`gr mghnfhi c`kaghfsc op`rgt`s(Gssucfhi tagt
[M
[M
$ ta` r`dgtfoh !=(7<& r`gns

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
jeanpremier liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->