courses to realize their agendas and formulated differentmethodologies and strategies because of the diverse conditions andenvironment in which they have grown and are operating
. Forinstance, some movements in dictatorial regimes or in Muslimcommunities under foreign occupation or those living as amarginalized minority may resort to violence as the only availablemeans of political expression.
On the other hand, movements in thedemocratic environment usually participate in the democraticpolitical process and implement successful social programs
. In theSomali context, Somali students in the Arab World universities in1960s had been interacting with different Islamic groups, embracedsimilar ideas and gradually formed comparable movements. Inparticular, two main organizations have become more prominentsince the 1980s; namely the Muslim Brotherhood affiliated
Islah(reform) Movement (1978)
and the neo-Salafia associated
al-Ittihad (Islamic Union)
(1980) and its
.Moderation is a general feature of Islam called “
” thatsets itself up against all kinds of extremism:
(transgressing; meticulous religiosity) and
Most Muslim countries are ruled by dictatorial regimes that violate human rights, creatingconducive environment for the growth of violent organizations in reaction to the repressive stateapparatus.
There are examples of armed Islamic movements in Kashmir, Afghanistan, Chechnya,Palestine, Algeria and Somalia. Examples of peaceful organizations are found in Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, Jordan, Turkey, Morocco, Algeria, Somalia and Egypt.
At first, the neo-Salafia Movement in Somalia was named
” (1980); afteruniting with the
Islamic organization, the name was changed to
1982); this was changed again to
“al-I’tisam bil kitabi wa Sunna”
in 1996 after theirconflicts with the armed factions in Kismayo (1991), Puntland (1992) and Gedo (1995-96). Themost recent name,
“Jama’at al-wifaaq al-Islaami,
” appeared in 2008 in the aftermath of theIslamic Court defeat with the allied forces of the TFG and Ethiopia. Al-Itihad is the backbone of the Union of the Islamic Courts.