Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Aerofax Datagraph 03 - Bell X-1 Variants

Aerofax Datagraph 03 - Bell X-1 Variants

Ratings:
(0)
|Views: 101|Likes:
Published by Gheorghita Vednueb
Aero Detail, Aero Series, Aerofax, Dtagraph, Aeroguide,Profil Publication, Aircraft, Aviation, Fightfile,Airlife
Aero Detail, Aero Series, Aerofax, Dtagraph, Aeroguide,Profil Publication, Aircraft, Aviation, Fightfile,Airlife

More info:

Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Gheorghita Vednueb on Jun 08, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/04/2013

pdf

text

original

 
AerofaxDatagraph
3
BeIIX-1
Variants
By
Ben
Guentherand
Jay
Miller
ISBN
0-942548-40-X©1988
Aerofax,
Inc.
P.O.
Box
200006Arlington,Texas76006
ph.214
647-1105
U.S.
BookTrade
Distribution
by:
Motorbooks
International
729
ProspectAve.
Osceola,
Wisconsin
54020
ph.
715
294-2090
European
Trade
Distribution
by:
Midland
Counties
Publications
24
The
Hollow,EarlShilton
Leicester,
LE97NA,
England
ph.
(0455)
47256
X-1
SECONDGENERATIONGENERALARRANGEMENT
1.
De-icingFluidTank22.
2.
Canopy23.
3.
OxygenFiller24.
4.
LoxTank25.
5.
NitrogenFiller26.
6.
ExternalPowerReceptacle27.
7.
HydrogenPeroxideFilter
8.
HydrogenPeroxideTank
9.
LoxFiller10.FuelTank11.FuelFiller12.TurbinePump13.Pick-AxeAntenna14.XLR11·RM-SMotor15.ANfAPN-60Antennas16.AN/APN-60RadarInstallation17.PitolTube18.TubeBundles(Nitrogen)19.MainWheelDoorActuatorAirBollie
20.
MainWheelDoorActuatorAirBottle
Filler21.AN/AAC-5RadioInstallation
Stor.kNo.0303
 
ABBREVIATIONSANDACRONYMS:
AAFABAFAFB
AH
ARDC
ASD
g.
NACA
NASAPARDPSI
RMI
tIc
tho
USAF
VHF
X
ArmyAirForceAirBaseAirForceAirForceBaseAmpHourAirResearchandDevelopmentCommandAeronauticalSystemsDivisionGravityNationalAdvisoryCommitteeforAeronauticsNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministrationPilotlessAircraftResearchDivisionPoundsperSquareInchReactionMotors,Inc.Thickness/ChordRatioThrustUnitedStatesAirForceVeryHighFrequencyExperimental
 
THE
BELLX·1
VARIANTSSTORY
The
secondX-I,46-063,duringfinalassemblyinsideBell'sNiagaraFalls,NewYorkfacilily,duringlate
194~.
The
wing~
withathickness/chordratio
of
8%,
anditsassociatedcentersection,laterwereswappedwiththe10%
wmg
of
theflfsl
X-I,
46-062,
pnor
to
thelatter
s
hlsloncflfstsupersonicflightonOctober
14,1947.
Withtheexception
of
theirwingsandserialnumbers,whencompfeted,46-062
and
46-063wereexternally,VirtuallyIdentical.Rarelyseenview
ofall
threefirst-generationBell
X-I
s
underconstructioninsidetheBell
plant
duringlate
1945.
Theaircraft
on
theleft
is
46-062,theone
m
themiddle
IS
46-064,andtheoneonthefarnght
IS
46-063.Theforwardfuselagesection
of
46-062hasbeenrotated
90°
initssupportcrade.
Thus
it
is
thatallcompressibilityeffectsdependupontherelationshipofairspeedtothespeedofsound.
It
is
important
to
notethatErnstMach(pronounced
"Mahk"),
anineteenthcenturyAustrianphysicistandmathematician,becamethefirst
to
enunciatethemathematicaltheorydealingwithairflow.Thistheoryassignedanumericalvaluetotheratiobetweenthespeedofasolidobjectthroughagas(orspace)andthespeedofsoundthroughthatsamemedium.Thisbecameknown
as
"Mach
number"-with
Mach1beingequivalenttothespeedofsoundandwithanythingmoreor
less
than
Mach
1beinggivenintermsofapercentage(i.e
..
85
Machwouldbe85/100thsthespeedofsound;Mach2wouldbetwicethespeedofsound;etc.).Today,Machisthegenerallyacceptedtermused
to
quantifysupersonicspeeds.BythebeginningofWWII,aerodynamicists,structuralengineers,powerplantdesigners,andnumerouspilotshadconcludedthatthescienceofflightwasfacedwithaninsidiousaerodynamichurdleoftrulystaggering
im
plications.Forthefirsttimeever,compressibilityphenomenon(alsolaterreferred
toas
the"transonic
bar
rier"or"soundbarrier"),adynamicgaseouseventwhereinairmoleculescompressintoaseeminglyim·penetrablewallinfront
of
an
aircraft'swings
and
fuselage(and,as
it
were,spinningpropellerbladeleadingedges)when
it
nearsMach
1,
hadraiseditsserpentinehead.Duringthelate1930sandveryearly1940s,newhig
·C.
15.0
5.1
-
4.8
-14.7-24.6-34.5-44.4-54.3-56.5-56.5-65.5
F.
59.041.223.35.5
-12.3-30.2-48.0-65.8-69.7-69.7-69.7
Ft.
Sea
level
5,000
10,00015,00020,000
25,000
30,00035,000
40,000
50,00060,000leadingedgeandallchangesinvelocityandpressuretakeplacequitesharplyandSUddenly.Theairflowahead
is
notinfluenceduntiltheairmoleculesSUddenlyareforcedoutofthewaybytheconcentratedpressurewavesetup
by
theactualobject.Simplystated,compressibilityanomaliesoccuratthosespeedswhichapproachorexceedthespeedofsound.Thisvelocity,inturn,
is
definedasthespeedatwhichsmallpressuredisturbanceswill
be
propagatedthroughthe
air-which
in
turn
is
solelyafunctionofairtemperature.Theaccompanyingtableillustratesspeedofsoundvariationsinthestandardatmosphere:VariationofTemperatureandSpeed
of
SoundWithAltitudeintheStandardAtmosphereAltitudeTemperatureSpeedofSoundKnots661.7
650.3
638.6
626.7614.6
602.2
589.6576.6
573.8573.8573.8
PROGRAM
HISTORY:
~
As
an
objectmovesthroughtheairmass,velocityand
pressure
changesoccurwhichcreatepressuredistur
bances
in
theairflowsurroundingtheobject.Traveling
at
the
speedofsound,thesepressuredisturbancesare
propagated
throughtheair
in
alldirections,extendingin
definitely.
If
theobject
is
travelingatlowspeed,the
pressure
disturbancesprimarilyarepropagatedahead
of
Ihe
objectandtheoncomingairflowthusisinfluenced
by
the
pressurefieldbeinggenerated.
Once
an
objectapproachessonicvelocity,this
scenario
dramaticallychanges.Therenowisnowarn
ing
for
oncomingairmoleculesthattheobjectisabout
10
pass
through.Theoncomingairmoleculescannotbe
influenced
by
apressurefieldbecausenoneexists
ahead.
Thus,asflightspeednearsthespeedofsound,a
compression
wave(shockwave)
is
formedatthe
CREDITS:
The
authorsand
Aerofax,
Inc.wouldliketoexpress
our
thanksto
themanyindividualswhocontributed
to
this
detailed
descriptionoftheBell
X-1
researchaircraft
family.
Threepeoplewhowereparticularlyhelpful
in
3ssisting
us
undertheauspices
of
BellAerospace
[extron
includeEddieMarek,StanleySmolen,andBob
3herwood.
Eddie'sWillingness
to
pullandfilerareoriginal
legatives,
and
Bob'swillingness
to
lethim
do
it,provided
the
final
contributionassuringthepublicationofthisbook.
Stan's
supportandassistancegaveEddietheboost
needed
to
perseverewhiledigging.Becauseofthe
ef
forts
of
thesethreeindividuals,muchoftheimageryseen
on
the
pagesofthisbookhasbeenreleasedforpUblic
consumption
forthefirsttime.
Others
whoseeffortsonourbehalfwon'tsoonbe
lorgotten
includeDavidAnderton,BillBeavers,'Joe
Cannon,
BobandGloriaChampine(thelatterofNASA
Langley),
RobertCooper,RichardForest(specialthanks),
Elaine
Heise
(BellAerospaceTextron),WesHenry(USAF
Museum),
CherylHortel(OfficeofHistory,Edwards
AFB),
Alvin
"Tex"Johnston;HelenLapp(specialthanks);
Dave
Menard;
RobertPerry(RANDCorp.);TerrillPutnam
(NASA
Dryden);MichaelRich(RANDCorp.);MickRoth;
Sue
Seward,
StanleySmith(specialthanks);TomVranas
(NASA
Langley);andLucilleZaccardi(retiredfromthe
Edwards
AFBHistoryOffice).
For
anotherperspectiveonthe
X-1
story,Aerofax,Inc.
highly
recommendsRichardHallion's
SupersonicFlight
(the
MacMillan
Co.,
NY,
1972).Andforadetaileddescrip
tion
of
the
restoftheX-seriesaircraft,thepUblisheralso
recommends
authorJayMiller's
TheX-Planes,
X-I
to
X-31
(Aerofax,Inc.,TX,1988).
-

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->