International Journal of Science and Engineering ApplicationsVolume 2 Issue 5, 2013, ISSN-2319-7560 (Online)
A stochastic algorithm is referred in each round by everysingle sensor node to determine whether it can be a clusterhead for that particular round or may not act as a cluster headfor that round. All normal nodes of the cluster communicatewith CH in TDMA fashion which is scheduled by CH.LEACH clustering is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. LEACH clustering
The operation of LEACH is conducted in numerous rounds,and each round is separated into two phases known as the set-up phase and the steady-state phase. In the set-up phase thevarious clusters of sensor network are organized, while in thesteady-state phase information is delivered to the sink node.During the set-up phase, each sensor node decides whether ornot to act as a cluster head for that particular round. Thisdecision is made by the sensor node by randomly selecting anumber between 0 and 1. A particular node becomes a clusterhead for the current round if the number is less than the givenfollowing threshold value:T(n) = if n
otherwisewhere P denotes desired percentage of cluster heads, r forcurrent round, and G represents set of nodes that have notbeen elected CHs in the last 1/P rounds. When a sensor nodeis chosen as CH successfully, then it broadcasts anadvertisement text to the other nodes of the network. Bymeasuring the strength of received signal of the advertisementtext, other sensor nodes decide to which cluster it will connectfor this particular round and send a membership message to itsCH.Another phase is steady-state phase. During this phase thenodes sense and transmit data to the cluster heads. The CHsaggregate the information/data arriving from sensor nodes thatbelong to the respective cluster, and send aggregatedinformation to the sink node directly.
Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, DistributedClustering Approach (HEED)
HEED  is also a distributed clustering algorithm used forWireless Sensor Networks. Every sensor node has someamount of energy associated with it. This energy of nodesreduces during reception and transmission of data. It alsoaccess query requests coming from the Base Station. HEEDprotocol follows to circulate the role of server among allnodes of the cluster so that a balance will be maintainedbetween residual energy of all nodes of the cluster. Hence,remaining energy of cluster head would not drop to minimumleading to less node failures due to energy depletion in thenetwork.
Power-Efficient Gathering in SensorInformation Systems (PEGASIS)
In this protocol , some chains consisting of differentsensor nodes have been formed. Every node sends its data tothe neighbor sensor node and most appropriate node isselected to transmit the data to the sink node. PEGASIS doesnot follow the concept of cluster formation and it prefer todecide or choose only one node from the chain to transmit tothe sink node instead of using multiple sensor nodes present inthe network. When a sensor node fails due to low batterybackup, again the chain is made using the same previousgreedy approach.
LEACH-C  is a centralized clustering algorithm in whichsink node has the power to select the clusters based upon theannealing algorithm to find k optimal number of clusters.Here the Base Station selects the cluster heads for a particularround. The protocol guarantees an optimum number of clusters but it has a drawback that each sensor node providesinformation about its current position and remaining energy tothe sink node during the set up phase which results in an extrawastage or overhead in the network.
LEACH-B  is an improvement in Leach protocol forwireless senor network. In order to minimize the energyconsumption and to prolong the life span of the sensornetwork, the protocol needs to ensure that the partition of cluster should be balance and uniform. To achieve this goal,the number of CHs needs to be dominated, and the network needs an optimal CHs amount. At each round, after firstselection of cluster head according to LEACH protocol, asecond selection is introduced to modify the number of clusterhead in consideration of node’s residual energy.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PREVIOUSAND PROPOSED TECHNIQUE3.1
Previous technique- LEACH
Figure 3. illustrates the basic block diagram of LEACHalgorithm. It gives a representation of step by step operationof LEACH. The working initiates by deployment of senornodes in a random manner in network. A traditional clusteringscheme is applied to divide the sensor network into clusters.Then cluster heads are chosen randomly and transmit the datato Base station. This process continuous in every round untilthe whole sensor nodes die or Base station commands forstopping the process.