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- Statistical Model Computer Vision_safriadi

- Statistical Model Computer Vision_safriadi

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Statistical Models of Appearancefor Computer Vision
1T.F. Cootes and C.J.TaylorImaging Science and Biomedical Engineering,University of Manchester,Manchester M13 9PT, U.K.email:
t.cootes@man.ac.uk
http://www.isbe.man.ac.ukMarch 8, 2004
1
This is an ongoing draft of a report describing our work on Active Shape Models and Active Appear-ance Models. Hopefully it will be expanded to become more comprehensive, when I get the time. Myapologies for the missing and incomplete sections and the inconsistancies in notation. TFC
 
Contents
1 Overview 52 Introduction 63 Background 94 Statistical Shape Models 12
4.1 Suitable Landmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134.2 Aligning the Training Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134.3 Modelling Shape Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154.4 Choice of Number of Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164.5 Examples of Shape Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174.6 Generating Plausible Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194.6.1 Non-Linear Models for PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204.7 Finding the Nearest Plausible Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.8 Fitting a Model to New Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224.9 Testing How Well the Model Generalises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.10 Estimating
p
(
shape
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244.11 Relaxing Shape Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244.11.1 Finite Element Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.11.2 Combining Statistical and FEM Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.11.3 Combining Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274.11.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274.11.5 Relaxing Models with a Prior on Covariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5 Statistical Models of Appearance 29
5.1 Statistical Models of Texture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295.2 Combined Appearance Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315.2.1 Choice of Shape Parameter Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325.3 Example: Facial Appearance Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325.4 Approximating a New Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
 
CONTENTS 
2
6 Image Interpretation with Models 34
6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346.2 Choice of Fit Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346.3 Optimising the Model Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7 Active Shape Models 37
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377.2 Modelling Local Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387.3 Multi-Resolution Active Shape Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397.4 Examples of Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8 Active Appearance Models 44
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448.2 Overview of AAM Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448.3 Learning to Correct Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458.3.1 Results For The Face Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468.3.2 Perturbing The Face Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478.4 Iterative Model Renement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488.4.1 Examples of Active Appearance Model Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498.5 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508.5.1 Examples of Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528.6 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
9 Constrained AAM Search 55
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559.2 Model Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559.2.1 Basic AAM Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569.2.2 MAP Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569.2.3 Including Priors on Point Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579.2.4 Isotropic Point Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589.3 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589.3.1 Point Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589.3.2 Including Priors on the Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599.3.3 Varying Number of Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10 Variations on the Basic AAM 64
10.1 Sub-sampling During Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6410.2 Search Using Shape Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6510.3 Results of Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6510.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
11 Alternatives and Extensions to AAMs 69
11.1 Direct Appearance Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6911.2 Inverse Compositional AAMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

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