2upcoming paragraph may be somewhat technical. Nevertheless, understanding this topic couldmean the difference between average and superior capability to build muscles and ignite energy.Living organisms derive most of their energy from oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, whichinvolve the transfer of electrons to the respiratory chain complex (an aerobic energy-yieldingmetabolic process that involves interaction between hydrogen protons and oxygen). Aerobicenergy production requires oxygen and yields most of the energy needed for survival. In fact, theelectron transfer system (oxidative phosphorylation) yields ten times more energy than the kreb’scycle itself.Dr. Otto Warburg, one of the world’s foremost leading biochemists, won a Nobel Prize for his basic work with respiratory enzymes and cellular energy production. He discovered andcharacterized certain nucleotide compounds and proteins, which are necessary for the actions of the respiratory chain, which, as noted, yields most of the energy needed to maintain an optimummetabolic state.Dr. Warburg suggested that energy released in the oxidation of foodstuff may be conserved andtransferred via a special mechanism for use in synthesis and growth. On the other hand,anaerobic respiration (an energy yielding metabolic process that does not require oxygen) mayadversely catabolize and damage healthy tissues. Dr. Warburg and other researchers showed thatthere is indeed a relationship between anaerobic respiration, tissue destruction and cancer. Dr.Abram Hoffer and Dr. Morton Walker, in their book
(Avery 1994), suggestedthat anaerobic respiration is the most primitive energy producing method compared to aerobicrespiration which is a later development in the evolution of life from unicellular to multicellular organisms. It is likely that multicellular organisms did not develop until cells became aerobic.According to this theory, the switch back from aerobic to anaerobic respiration brings the cell back to a primitive condition that may cause uncontrolled cell division and a resultantcatastrophic damage to the whole organism. As you’re about to see, aerobic respiration clearlydepends on dietary carb utilization and the production of substrates and enzymes that serve asenergy molecules. All energy molecules are, in fact, made from nucleotides. Most important, allnucleotide material, including all energy molecules, are derived from glucose that is then predominantly derived from dietary carbs.
The Essential Role of Carbs
It is commonly assumed that carbs serve as fuel and nothing more. This assumption is wrong andquite misleading since it fails to recognize the main biological functions of carbs, which go far beyond being just a sheer substrate for energy. Evidently, optimum carb utilization from food iscritically necessary in order to afford full activation of two vitally important metabolic pathways,which are bound together:
) the pentose phosphate pathway and
) the uronic acid pathway.As you’ll soon see, these pathways play essential roles in facilitating DNA, RNA and nucleotidessynthesis as well as steroid hormones production, enhancing immunity and generation of energy.As such, these pathways regulate hormonal actions, rate of tissue regeneration as well as protection against DNA damage and disease. Most important, both pathways’ actions dependupon dietary carb consumption and utilization.