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valves and application- by majid hamedynia

valves and application- by majid hamedynia

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Published by: majid on Apr 27, 2009
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05/13/2013

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Valve
Technical report on valve and application
By;Majid hamedinia
 
Introduction
A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system or  process. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of thefollowing functions:
o
Stopping and starting fluid flow
o
Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow
o
Controlling the direction of fluid flow
o
Regulating downstream system or process pressure
o
Relieving component or piping over pressureThere are many valve designs and types that satisfy one or more of the functions identified above. Amultitude of valve types and designs safely accommodate a wide variety of industrial applications.Also there are main category according to function of valves. Most important of categorization is as below:
Manual Valves
The simplest form of actuation is manual. A manual valve requires the operator to open, close, or otherwise control the valve "by hand." Your kitchen faucet is a manual valve. Common industrialmanual valves include hand-operated shutoff valves and manual ball valves. Manual valves aredivided into four groups according to the way the closure member moves onto the seat. Each valvegroup consists of a number of distinct types of valves that, in turn, are made in numerous variations.The way the closure member moves onto the seat gives a particular group or type of valve a typicalflow-control characteristic.
Automatic valves
Automatic valves, also known as self-actuating, perform their specific function without externalassistance. A safety relief valve on a home water heater is an example of an automatic valve. When pressure in the tank is greater than the spring force built into the valve, the safety valveautomatically pops open. Common automatic industrial valves include pressure regulators, check valves, vacuum breakers, and by-pass relief valves.Mechanically actuated valves require an external device, motor, or other force to operate. These arereferred to simply as actuated valves. An example is the solenoid valve in your automatic
 
dishwasher. An electric signal acts upon a coil, which electromagnetically pulls a metallic stem thatis attached to the seat; the valve opens and allows flow. At the instant the external force (electricity)is removed, the magnetic field vanishes and a spring closes the valve. Common "actuated"industrial valves include air-actuated ball valves, motorized ball valves, and solenoid valves. Awell-designed actuator is modular; it can be mounted on different valves and can beservice/replaced without disturbing the liquid handling components.Some valves use a combination of manual and automatic, automatic and actuated, or manual andactuated. The simplest example is found in the everyday toilet tank; the valve requires manualopening, but then has automatic shutoff via a float. An example of an industrial valve is an air-actuated ball valve with a limit stop; it requires an external force (compressed air to the actuator) toopen, but then stops automatically depending on where the limit stop is set.
The basic components of valves
A multitude of valve types and designs safely accommodate a wide variety of industrialapplications. Regardless of type, all valves have the following basic parts; see below picture. 
 body
bonnet
trim (internal elements)
actuator 
 packing

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