Introduction to SONET/ SDH
SONET was developed in the United States through ANSI T1X1.5 committee. ANSI workcommenced in 1985 with the CCITT (now ITU) initiating a standardization effort in 1986. TheUS wanted a data rate close to 50Mbps. But the Europeans wanted the data rate to bearound 150 Mbps. A compromise was reached and the US data rates were made subset of ITU specification, known formally as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).SONET/SDH networks are configured as linear networks, where SONET/SDH nodesknows as Add Drop Multiplexers (ADMs) are hooked together in a line as shown in figure-1.There may be two or four fibers between the two consecutive ADMs with one set serving as
“protection” or “back up”.
Add/drop multiplexers (ADMs) are places where traffic enters and leaves. The trafficcan be at various levels in the SONET/ SDH hierarchy (see Table-1). We will learn moreabout ADMs later.Figure-1 Also SONET network elements can receive signals from a variety of facilities such asDS1, DS3, ATM, Internet, and LAN/MAN/WAN. They can also receive signals from a varietyof network topologies. We will study how all this is done in subsequent sections. In additionSDH signals my also be connected with a SONET and vice versa. In this case, circuitrytranslates specific SDH information into its SONET equivalent, and vice versa.
The SONET frame in its electrical nature is called Synchronous Transport Signal-levelN (STS-N). The SDH equivalent is called Synchronous Transport Module level N (STM-N). After conversion into optical pulses it is known as Optical Carrier level N. The line rates for different levels of SONET and SDH signals are shown in Table-1 below.