The Triple Helix
A Triple Helix of university–industry–government interactions is the keyto innovation in increasingly knowledge-based societies. As the creation,dissemination, and utilization of knowledge moves from the peripheryto the center of industrial production and governance, the concept of innovation, in product and process, is itself being transformed. Initsplace is a new sense of “innovation in innovation”—the restructuring andenhancement of the organizational arrangements and incentives that fosterinnovation.This Triple Helix intersection of relatively independent institutionalspheres generates hybrid organizations such as technology transfer ofﬁcesin universities, ﬁrms, and government research labs and business andﬁnancial support institutions such as angel networks and venture capitalfor new technology-based ﬁrms that are increasingly developing aroundthe world.
The Triple Helix
describes this new innovation model and assistsstudents, researchers, and policy-makers in addressing such questions as:How do we enhance the role of universities in regional economic and socialdevelopment? How can governments, at all levels, encourage citizensto take an active role in promoting innovation in innovation and,conversely, how can citizens so encourage their governments? How canﬁrms collaborate with each other and with universities and governmentto become more innovative? What are the key elements and challengesto reaching these goals?
, PhD, holds the Chair in Management of Innovation,Creativity, and Enterprise and is Director of the Triple Helix ResearchGroup, Newcastle University Business School, UK. He is also VisitingResearch Professor, Department of Technology and Society, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, USA.