ANSI-SPARC Architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediafile:///C|/Users/Ali/Desktop/Ali's%20Gift%20(MBA)/1st%20Sem/Computers/3%20level%20Architecture-DBMS.htm[25-02-2012 14:11:27]
organisation’s data will be required. The internal structure of the database should be unaffected by changes to the physical aspects of the storage : For example, a changeover to a new disk. The database administrator should be able to change the conceptual or global structure of thedatabase without affecting the users : This should be possible while still maintaining the desiredindividual users’ views.Implementations of the ANSI-SPARC architecture at the external and conceptual levels were held backfor decades by the lack of aSQLmechanism to create updateable views. Around 1998, databasevendors offered triggers to support updateable views - finally allowing the implementation of a truethree layer ANSI-SPARC architecture to support database applications. Grabczewski (2005) describessuch an implementation in the United Kingdom.
A standard three level approach to databasedesign has been agreedExternal levelConceptual levelInternal level (includes physical datastorage) The Three Level Architecture has the aim of enabling users to access the same data butwith a personalised view of it. Thedistancing of the internal level from theexternal level means that users do not needto know how the data is physically stored inthe database. This level separation alsoallows the Database Administrator (DBA) to change the database storage structures without affectingthe users' views.External Level (User Views) : A user's view of the database describes a part of the database that isrelevant to a particular user. It excludes irrelevant data as well as data which the user is notauthorised to access.Conceptual Level : The conceptual level is a way of describing what data is stored within the wholedatabase and how the data is inter-related. The conceptual level does not specify how the data isphysically stored.Some important facts about this level are ... 1.DBA works at this level. 2.Describes the structure of allusers. 3.Only DBA can define this level. 4.Global view of database. 5.Independent of hardware andsoftware.Internal Level : The internal level involves how the database is physically represented on thecomputer system. It describes how the data is actually stored in the database and on the computerhardware.
There are three different types of schema corresponding to the three levels in the ANSI-SPARCarchitecture. The
describe the different external views of the data and there may be manyexternal schemas for a given database. The
describes all the data items and relationships between them, together with
Another illustration of three levels.