A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system orprocess. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of thefollowing functions:
Stopping and starting fluid flow
Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow
Controlling the direction of fluid flow
Regulating downstream system or process pressure
Relieving component or piping over pressureThere are many valve designs and types that satisfy one or more of the functions identified above. Amultitude of valve types and designs safely accommodate a wide variety of industrial applications.Also there are main category according to function of valves. Most important of categorization is asbelow:
The simplest form of actuation is manual. A manual valve requires the operator to open, close, orotherwise control the valve "by hand." Your kitchen faucet is a manual valve. Common industrialmanual valves include hand-operated shutoff valves and manual ball valves. Manual valves aredivided into four groups according to the way the closure member moves onto the seat. Each valvegroup consists of a number of distinct types of valves that, in turn, are made in numerous variations.The way the closure member moves onto the seat gives a particular group or type of valve a typicalflow-control characteristic.
Automatic valves, also known as self-actuating, perform their specific function without externalassistance. A safety relief valve on a home water heater is an example of an automatic valve. Whenpressure in the tank is greater than the spring force built into the valve, the safety valveautomatically pops open. Common automatic industrial valves include pressure regulators, check valves, vacuum breakers, and by-pass relief valves.Mechanically actuated valves require an external device, motor, or other force to operate. These arereferred to simply as actuated valves. An example is the solenoid valve in your automaticdishwasher. An electric signal acts upon a coil, which electromagnetically pulls a metallic stem thatis attached to the seat; the valve opens and allows flow. At the instant the external force (electricity)is removed, the magnetic field vanishes and a spring closes the valve. Common "actuated"industrial valves include air-actuated ball valves, motorized ball valves, and solenoid valves. A