Gharrajedaghi, JamshidSystems thinking: a case for second-order-learning The learning organization Vol 14, no 6, 2007 473-479 This is an incredible article; it needs to be rerea several times473In order for change to take place, unlearning must occur Gharrajedaghi 473Def. of systems thinking and analytical thinking “...analytical thinking, the scienceof dealing with independent sets of variables, to systems thinking, the art, andscience of handling independent set of variables.” Gharrajedaghi 473the same core system of values produces the same problems and the same non-solutionschange requires second order learning and huge cultural changeconsider the potential of systems thinking with classical rhetorical trainingwas it systems thinking? especially since it incorporated physical training?474review/locate Living systems theories (open systems are self-organizing and showa tendency to move toward a predefined order)Ghara has argued in 2006 article that something must know in order to self-organize“The shared image of the desired future provides default values for all decisionsand stands at the center of the process of change. That is why experience withsocial transformation is fraught with frustration. The triumphant resurgence of oldpatterns of behavior despite the concerted efforts of change agents is anuninterrupted saga of despair. What seems to make this stubborn insurgency sooverpowering is the fact that the set of organizing principles (cultural codes) thatmake the system to behave the way it does are implicit and in most cases areconsidered sacred. The set of implicit, sacred cultural codes or organizing principles responsiblefor regenerating the existing order is what I metaphorically refer to as “second-order-machine.” Second-order-machine is equivalent to the notion of attractor inChaos Theory. To produce a change in behavioral pattern of a social system itssecond order machine need to be dismantled and the attractor in action to beredesigned (sic). Otherwise, the existing order will outlive the temporary effectsof any interventions.” Def. of systems thinking and analytical thinking“...analytical thinking, the science of dealing with independent sets of variables,to systems thinking, the art, and science of handling independent set of variables.” Gharrajedaghi 474Self-reference is an obstruction to development; existing images don't allow theevolving process to fully take place.