HEARING OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ONTERRORIST ATTACKS UPON THE UNITED STATES“TERRORISM, AL QAEDA, AND THE MUSLIM WORLD”253 RUSSELL SENATE OFFICE BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.C.WEDNESDAY, JULY 9, 2003, 9:02 A.M.PANEL I: TERRORISM, AL QAEDA, AND THE MUSLIM WORLDWITNESSES: ROHAN GUNARATNA, INSTITUTE FOR DEFENCE AND STRATEGICSTUDIES, SINGAPORE; MAMOUN FANDY, SENIOR FELLOW, UNITED STATESINSTITUTE OF PEACE; MARC SAGEMAN, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIAPANEL II: STATES AND TERRORISMWITNESSES: LAURIE MYLROIE, AUTHOR; JUDITH YAPHE, NATIONAL DEFENSEUNIVERSITY; MURHAF JOUEJATI, GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY; MARKGASIOROWSKI, LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITYPANEL III: THE CHALLENGE WITHIN THE MUSLIM WORLDWITNESSES: RACHEL BRONSON, COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS; GILLESKEPEL, INSTITUTE OF POLITICAL STUDIES, PARIS; STEVEN EMERSON,EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE INVESTIGATIVE PROJECT; AND DENNIS ROSS,WASHINGTON NEAR EAST POLICY INSTITUTEPOST-HEARING MEDIA ADVISORY: THOMAS H. KEAN,CHAIR,and LEE H. HAMILTON,VICE CHAIRMR. KEAN:Good Morning. As Chairman of the National Commission onTerrorist Attacks upon the United States, I hereby call to order our thirdpublic hearing, on the topic of Terrorism, Al Qaeda, and the Muslim World.Many have compared the attacks of September 11, 2001 to the bombing ofPearl Harbor, sixty years previous. There were, of course, important differencesin what transpired on both days. More people died on September 11 than diedduring the Pearl Harbor attacks. And unlike the case of Pearl Harbor, almostall who died on September 11
were civilians. The planners of the 9-11 attackstargeted not military bases of operation, but the heart of America’s financialcenter and the seat of its government.There also are many similarities between what happened on both days. Ineach case, a surprise air attack left thousands of Americans dead. Immediatelyafter both events, the President declared the US to be in a state of war. Ineach case, our attackers had decided that they were at war with us long beforewe realized we were at war with them. War for them began with preparations forattack and the assembly of forces to execute their attacks.Now, as was the case 60 years ago, we confront a global war with all itsinherent uncertainties of dimension, duration and loss of life. To defeat anddestroy our enemy, we must understand more than the crimes that are alreadycommitted. We must understand what drives and motivates it; the source of itspower; the resources at its command; its internal strengths and weaknesses; theidentity, roles, motives of its allies, enablers and supporters; and its abilityto adapt to changed circumstances, especially after we struck back.