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Contracts Outline Fall 2007

Contracts Outline Fall 2007

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Published by biferguson
law, contracts, outline
law, contracts, outline

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Published by: biferguson on Apr 29, 2009
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11/30/2012

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BARBRI Contracts OutlineSaturday, November 10, 20071:03 PM
7 Questions of Contracts:
1.
 
Is there an agreement or promise?a.
 
Considerationb.
 
Promissory Estoppel2.
 
Is there any reason that this agreement or promise should not be enforced?3.
 
What are the terms of the contract?4.
 
Was the contract performed?5.
 
Excuses for Non-Performance - Is there any excuse for non-performance?6.
 
How do courts enforce agreements OR what are the consequences when someone first makes an agreementbut then doesn't do what was agreed to do?7.
 
When do people who did not make the contract have either rights or duties under the contract?Three Places of Contract Law
Article 2 of Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)
 – 
Legislatively Passed
If sale of "goods" =>
Goods
- tangible property that is NOT real estate, see/touch/move the objectMoveable at the time of contractNo MoneyIncludes unborn young of animals and growing crops
Things “severed from realty”
 Other Contacts = Common Law/Case Law (not statutory)
Restatements and Cases
- must examine these provisions
Case law is always controlling
-
Restatement is secondary
- "never 'controlled' by the Restatement,"talk about Restatement being "
relevant to
"VocabularyCorrect use of vocabulary phrases is easiest way to create confidence in blue book and answer sheet
Seven Groups of Terms
 
(difference between…)
-Agreement - ContractBilateral - UnilateralCondition - DutyDelegation - NovationExpectation Interest - Reliance InterestImpossibility - Frustration of PurposeParole Evidence - Statute of FraudsRule for Exam Taking
o
 
If you have to make up a fact
 – 
do not follow the issue
o
 
“IF”
o
 
“No reasonable person could think…” – 
 
“potentially” – 
 
don’t do it
 Special Assumpsit
 – 
Ds breach of an expressed contract 
 
I)
 
Contract Formation
 
1)
 
Functions of Consideration
a.
 
Evidentiary - proof b.
 
Cautionary
 – 
mental statec.
 
Channeling
 – 
judicial enforcement
2)
 
Formation of Contract through Consideration Doctrine
a.
 
Consideration
 i.
 
Statute of Frauds (if necessary)b.
 
Mutual Objective Manifestation of Intent to be Bound
(can be implied/expressed)c.
 
Certainty/Definiteness - Essential Terms
 i.
 
Subject (& Quantity)ii.
 
Priceiii.
 
Time of Performance
A)
 
Consideration
 
1)
 
Define
:
Bargained for detriment/exchange - each party must give up a legal right andmust bargain for it
 a.
 
 
Restatement 71
 
 – 
Requirements of Exchange, Types of Exchange
 i.
 
Defines considerationb.
 
Issues with Consideration:i.
 
Amountii.
 
Forbearanceiii.
 
Past Considerationiv.
 
Bargained Forv.
 
Past Considerationc.
 
Can be an
act, requested promise, forbearance
 d.
 
Restatement 81- Inducing Reliance
 i.
 
Explain
 (a)
 
Consideration must induce reliance 
ii.
 
Earle v. Angel -
payment after death is sufficient (aunt paid for nephew to attend funeral)
 iii.
 
Hammer v. Sidway 
 
 – 
giving up legal right (uncle
 – 
restrict lawful actions)
 
iv.
 
Diamond Jim
 
 – 
 
fishing, wasn’t “bargained for” but was accepted
 v.
 
Klick Lewis
 
 – 
shooting golf 
2)
 
Amount
 
of Consideration/Nominal
 
a.
 
Adequacy is irrelevant
UNLESS
about two different sums of moneyb.
 
Investment
 
 – 
 can be consideration (selling the land)c.
 
Ptaskis
 
 – 
inadequate but bargained for, contract acted upon by both parties
d.
 
Fisher v. Union Trust 
 
 – 
love and affection is not enough, must bargain (deed for $1, but father didnot pay the mortgage, dollar was not bargained for)
 e.
 
Schnell v. Nell 
 
 – 
 
f.
 
Embola v. Tupula - Goldmine Plot of Land 
 
 – 
investment in the land, even though inadequate,acceptable, probable loss of money was not a loan (50 for 10,000)
 
3)
 
Consideration as Gift - Generous
a.
 
Consideration must be bargained for cannot be gratuitousb.
 
Congregation Kadimah
-congregation gets money as a gift promise but two sides were notbargained for c.
 
Hammer v. Sidway 
 
 – 
 uncle requesting to give money for not drinking or gambling, giving up a legalright
4)
 
Forbearance
 
as Consideration
:
 
a.
 
Forbearance Rule [Duncan v. Black]
i.
 
Must be done in good faith - must uphold part of bargain, ANDii.
 
Claim of forbearance must have some foundationb.
 
Restatement 74 (pg. 222) -
REMEMBER THE "OR" "GOOD FAITH"
 
i.
 
Forbearance is NOT consideration UNLESS(a)
 
Uncertainty, OR(b)
 
Good faithii.
 
Exception
 
 – 
Written Tool 
5)
 
Past Consideration
a.
 
Restatement 86 - Past Consideration (previously conferred) -
IMPLY A PROMISE
 
i.
 
A promise made in recognition of a benefit previously received by the promisor from thepromisee is binding to the extent necessary to prevent injusticeii.
 
A promise is not binding under subsection 1:(a)
 
If the promisee conferred the benefit as a gift or for other reasons the promisorhas not been unjustly enriched; OR(b)
 
To the extent that its value is disproportionate to the benefit.
6)
 
Bargained For Offer and Acceptance
:
a.
 
Whitten
 
 – 
 
“don’t call me,” not
bargained for even though both sides were giving up
 
b.
 
Kirksey v. Kirksey 
 
 – 
widow moves based on promise but brother in law did not bargain
 
7)
 
Express
v.
Implied Promises
a.
 
Express:
written or orally explicitly
 
b.
 
Implied :
promise is implied by conduct of the parties
 i.
 
Collins v. Lewis
 – 
 
cow situation, where cow was taken and silence… implied contract
resulted through conduct
 ii.
 
Seaview Assn of Fire Island 
 
 – 
owner of 7 homes refuses to pay, but they used the facilitiesso created an implied contract
iii.
 
 Martin v. Little Brown
 
 – 
law students wanted payment for offering tip (generous)
 
8)
 
Contract Modifications
a.
 
 
Pre-Existing Legal Duty
 – 
 i.
 
If modification is something that someone was already obligated to do, then this is notconsideration
 
b.
 
 
UCC 2-209 - Modification of Contract for Sale of Goods
 – 
 
i.
 
No consideration
neededc.
 
Accord in Satisfaction
 – 
 
getting around consid to modify contracti.
 
Elements:
 (a)
 
Bona fide dispute [good faith](b)
 
Tender [of lower amount](c)
 
Cash is checked or accepted [take payment](d)
 
Dispute is settled
9)
 
Substitute for Consideration
a.
 
Promissory Estoppel
 
-
Restatement 90
 
i.
 
Elements:
(a)
 
Promise Made -
sets up promisor and promisee
 
(b)
 
Foreseeable
to the Promisor that promisee act or forbear based on the promise
 
(c)
 
(Reliance):
Promise induces action or forbearance
 
(d)
 
Detriment -
Injustice can only be avoided by enforcing the promise
 ii.
 
Getting around Consideration Doctrine
 – 
 
loss is not necessary (
Fried v. Fisher 
 
 – 
nodetriment b/c got into better business, but still allowed by court b/c action occurred)
 

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