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Analysis of Secure Multipath Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

Analysis of Secure Multipath Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

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Published by JournalofICT
Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, ISSN 2047-3168, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013

www.jict.co.uk
Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, ISSN 2047-3168, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013

www.jict.co.uk

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: JournalofICT on Jun 12, 2013
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JOURNALOFINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGIES,VOLUME3,ISSUE6,JUNE2013
10
Analysis of
 
Secure Multipath Routing Protocols inWireless Mesh Networks
 
1
Mohammad Masdari, Maryam Tanabi
2
 
1
Department of Computer Engineering, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran.2Department of Computer Engineering, Science and research Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia,
 
Iran.
 
Abstract,
Wireless mesh networks as an effective technology have been applied in different industrialareas such as building automation, transportation systems and security cameras. Like other computer networks security of this kind of network is very important and it should be taken into consideration. Toachieve this aim, many security solutions have been presented to ensure the confidentiality, integrity andauthentication of network traffic. In this paper, we present a new classification for secure multipathrouting protocols in wireless mesh networks based on their security capabilities and summarize thecurrent research directions in secure multipath routing protocols.
Keywords: Attacker, Multipath, Wireless Mesh Networks.
 
1.Introduction
Wireless mesh networks (WMN) as an improvedtechnology have been managed by some constantrouters or access points placed in sensitive points of network [1]. There have been presented two categoriesfor WMNs named mesh routers and mesh clients.Being usually constant, mesh routers with power supply are responsible for routing in the network. Onthe other hand, being mobile or stationary with limitedenergy, clients are not only used as a source anddestination for sending and transmitting data, but alsothey can play the role of a router in sending data [2].WMNs have different industrial applications such as building automation, using in transportation systems,and security cameras. They can also be used inemergency cases, especially when communication isdifficult in such cases as tunnels, well drilling siteswhere individuals are not permitted to enter [3]. Threemain types of mesh networks that have beenintroduced are infrastructure mesh network, clientmesh network and hybrid mesh network which areexplained below:
 
Infrastructure Mesh Network:
 
Being made upwith static mesh routers which have ad-hoccharacteristics, they commonly play a role as agateway towards wired network and providecomplete WAN connectivity to the wirelessmesh network.
 
Client Mesh network :
It is a pure mobile ad-hoc wireless network which has independentrouters called mesh clients and are principallyspread widely.
 
Hybrid Mesh Network:
 
This is the mostcomprehensive and interesting version of meshnetwork which is composed of the combinationof the existing infrastructure and client meshnetwork structure presented in Figure 1 [4].As the wireless mesh network is a kind of self-organized and self-managed intelligentnetwork, it does not need a backbone network.It can construct a dynamic and flexible network structure which has a lot of characteristics suchas initial investments, a wide range of coveringgood anti-interference and expanding ability,flexible network structure, easy maintenance,high reliability and nice compatibility [5].
internetinternet
Mesh ClientNetworkMesh ClientNetworkMesh ClientNetwork

Figure 1:
 
A
Hybrid Mesh Network 
Routing can be referred to as the process of determining the end-to-end path between a sourcenode and a destination node [6]. But it should benoted that
a majority of the routing protocols ignorethe fact that a route initially discovered has becomesub-optimal over time and its rediscovery is typicallytriggered by only route breaks and route timeouts.Therefore this approach can be detrimental tonetwork performance [7]. More precisely, Routingwireless mesh networks must consider:
 
JOURNALOFINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGIES,VOLUME3,ISSUE6,JUNE2013
11
 
Transmission errors:
they occur because of theunreliability of the wireless medium may leadto transmission errors.
 
Link and node failures:
this may happen at anytime due to different types of hazardousconditions in the environment.
 
Incorrect routes:
due to node/link failures or additions to the network or being based on anincorrect system state, routes may becomeobsolete.
 
Congested nodes or links:
due to the topologyof the network and the nature of the routing protocols, certain nodes or links may becomecongested, which will lead to higher delay or  packet loss [13].

Regarding wireless network routing, each nodeforwards a packet to a single next hop. Therefore, if the transmission to that next hop fails, the node needsto retransmit the packet even though other neighborsmay have overheard it. In contrast, in any pathrouting, each node broadcasts a packet to multiplenext hops simultaneously and if the transmission toone neighbor fails, an alternative neighbor whoreceived the packet can forward it on [17].Our contribution in this paper is to present a newclassification for Secure Multipath Routing Protocolin WMNs as follow: Sections 2 which describes the properties of an ideal multipath routing protocol,section 3 which displays the secure multipath routing protocol and section 4 which presents
 
conclusions.
2. Properties of an Ideal MultipathRouting Protocol
 
Multipath routing is one of the distinguished featuresof wireless mesh networks in which a source devicecan establish a primary path as well as several backup paths toward a desired destination [10]. This routingallows the use of several good paths to reachdestinations, not just the best path. This should beachieved without imposing excessive controloverhead in maintaining such
 
 paths [13] which isshown in Figure 2. The main goal of multipathrouting is to construct multiple paths to enhance faulttolerance and decrease routing overheads [14]. Theavailability of multiple paths between a source and adestination can be used to achieve the following benefits:
 
Fault tolerance
: introducing redundancy in thenetwork or providing backup routes which will be used when there is a failure, are forms of introducing fault tolerance at the routing level inmesh networks. Thus, some techniques may beapplied e.g. packet salvaging which consists of modifying the route of a packet if the actualroute is broken.
 
Throughput enhancement
: Since in a meshnetwork, routing along a single path may not provide enough bandwidth for a connection,using simultaneously multiple paths to route datacan be a good approach to satisfy the bandwidthrequirement of some applications. By increasingthe throughput, a smaller end-to-end delay isachieved and quality of service is improved.
 
Load balancing
: as traffic distribution is not equalin all links in the network, spreading the trafficalong multiple routes can alleviate congestion insome links and bottlenecks.
 
Error resilience
: multipath protocols can be usedto provide error resilience by distributing traffic(for instance, using data and error correctioncodes) over multiple paths.
 
Security:
with single path routing protocols, it iseasy for an adversary to launch routing attacks, but multipath offers attack resilience [13].
s
RAGKFTC E
D
HB

Figure 2: Multipath routing wireless mesh network 
Multipath routing is needed for securecommunication when route recovery cannot beguaranteed to be done fast enough because of thehigh mobility of the system. With standby paths,traffic can be redirected whenever we have routefailure, and reduce route recovery time. Multipathrouting also offers other quality of service advantages(such as, load balancing, aggregation of network  bandwidth, reducing traffic congestion etc) [15].

These sections classify the routing multipath into twocategories: Secure routing multipath and insecurerouting multipath that are displayed in Figure 3.
3. Secure Multipath Routing Protocol
Wireless mesh networks are extremely vulnerable toattacks due to their dynamically changing topology,absence of conventional security infrastructures andopen medium of communication, which unlike their wired counterparts cannot be secured [20].The goalof the security protocols should be to ensure theconfidentiality, integrity, authenticity of network traffic and to preserve the availability of communications. Attacks intended to compromise
 
JOURNALOFINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGIES,VOLUME3,ISSUE6,JUNE2013
12
routing integrity are a significant threat that can leadto a network wide loss of availability [22].
Reactive protocol
 
SymmetricSecure
 
Proactive protocolReactive protocolMultipath Routing Protocol Asymmetricin WMNProactive protocolReactive protocolInsecureProactive protocolFigure 3: classification of Secure and Insecure Multipath Routing Protocol
To solve this problem, routing protocols should berobust against both dynamically changing topologyand malicious attacks [23]. Moreover, to providesecure communication in WMNs, two ways have been suggested: (1) Use the multiple paths betweenthe two nodes. (2) Use the cryptographic methods tosecure the communication in between two nodes.Consider the first approach in which all the multiple paths between two nodes need to be node-disjoint (anode cannot participate in more than one path between two end nodes). If there are
multiple pathsavailable then the adversary requires compromisingat least
nodes – and more particularly at least onenode in each path – in order to control thecommunication. This approach is cost effective as itdoes not include any computation or transmissionoverhead and hardly inject delay in the network. Butit does not ensure a certain level of security as thereare not always multiple paths between two end nodes.The second approach may provide optimal security but with the price of too much computation andtransmission cost as well as time delay. Multi-pathrouting protocols need to be properly enhanced withcryptographic means which will guarantee theintegrity of a routing path and the authenticity of the participating nodes [24].It has been indicated that a secure mechanism is ableto provide secure communication effectively andreduce the damage of attacks through multiple paths(Xuyang et al,.[8])
On the basis of analyzing thecharacters and the potential risks of WMN, they propose a novel protective mechanism to guaranteethe secure communications based on the multipathrouting protocol. The mechanism utilizes thecommunication encryption scheme to protect data packets and uses a heuristic risk avoidance scheme toavoid the malicious nodes during communications.In another study which is done by Hu et al, [10], themost existing multipath routing methods are proposed which tend to establish link-disjoint or node-disjoint paths with minimal path costs. As pathscreated by these methods are typically close to eachother, they may cause serious inter-path interferencewhen serving for concurrent data transmissions. Itseparates these paths with insulating regions so thatthese paths are not only disjoint but also separated far enough to avoid inter-path interferences. It wasshown that the decoupled features of AODV-DMmultipath routing and the path-aware SCTP schemesmake them particularly suitable to concurrentlytransfer real time and multimedia data throughmultipath wireless links.The use of multipath routing as a means to satisfymultiple QoS requirements of mesh network applications simultaneously has been offered in astudy by Shillingford et al. [11]. Toward this end, this paper introduces the Multi-QoS Load-Balanced(MQLB) packets across multiple paths based onapplication and network QoS expectations. Inaddition, they introduced a feedback-based load balancing protocol which has been shown to improvedata transmission in terms of latency and percentageof late packets while preventing rapid depletion of energy-constrained nodes.
ARAN
TMDSR 
SEAD
MDSDV
SecMR 
 
MP-DSR 
LMAR 
STRP
AOMDV

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