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Tschichold

Tschichold

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Published by: stuber on Apr 29, 2009
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Consistent Correlation Between Book Page and Type Area
by Jan Tschichold; selection from "The Form of the Book", essays by Jan Tschichold pub.by Lund Humphries 1991 Two constants reign over the proportions of a well made book: the hand and the eye. Ahealthy eye is always about two spans away from the book page, and all people hold abook in the same manner. The format of a book is determined by its purpose. It relates to the average size andthe hands of an adult. Children's books should not be produced in folio size because for achild this format is not handy. A high degree or at least a sufficient degree of handinesshas to be expected: a book the size of a table is an absurdity, books the size of postagestamps are trivialities. Likewise, books that are very heavy are not welcome; older peoplemay not be able to move them around without help. Giants should have books andnewspapers that are larger; many of our books would be too large for dwarfs.There are two major categories of books: those we place on a table for serious study,and those we read while leaning back in a chair, in an easy chair, or while travelling bytrain. The books we study should rest at a slant in front of us. Few, however, will go tosuch length. To bend over a book is just as unhealthy as the usual writing positionenforced by a flat table. The scribe of the middle ages used a desk; we hardly dare call itthat any more because the slope was so steep (up to 65°). The parchment was held inplace by a string across it and could be pushed upward little by little. The active line,always horizontal was the height-of-eye, and the scribe sat perfectly upright. Even at theturn of the century, clergymen and government officials used to do their writing standingup behind a small desk: a healthy and reasonable position for writing and reading thathas, alas, become rare. The reading position has nothing to do with the size and dimension of textbooks. Theirformats range from large octavo to large quarto. Still larger formats are the exception. Textbooks and coffee-table books rest on a desk. They cannot be read freehand. Those books we like to hold in our hands while reading come in a variety of formats, allbased on octavo. Even smaller books can be perfect provided they are slim; withouteffort they can be held for hours in one hand.Only during church service do we see someone read from a book that has been set up:the reader's eyes may be at arm's length from the letters of the text. An ordinary bookpage is only a forearm's length from the eye of the reader. We are talking here about
 
profane books only; not all of the following considerations and rules apply to sacredbooks as well.Book pages come in many proportions, i.e. relationships between width and height.Everybody knows, at least from hearsay, the proportion of the Golden Section, exactlyI:I.6I8. A ratio of 5:8 is no more than an approximation of the Golden Section. It would bedifficult to maintain the same opinion about a ratio of 2:3. In addition to the ratios of I:I.6I8, 5:8 and 2:3, for books the ratios of I:I.732 (I: root 3) and I:I.4I4 (I: root 2 ) are used(see figure 18)  fig 1Figure I shows a little-known, very beautiful rectangle, derived from the pentagon(proportion I: I .5 3 8). The geometrically definable irrational page proportions like I:I.6I8 (Golden Section), I:root 2, I: root 3, I: root 5, I:I.538 (figure I), and the simple rational proportions of 1: 2, 2:3, 5:8 and 5:9 I call clear, intentional and definite. All others are unclear and accidentalratios. The difference between a clear and an unclear ratio, though frequently slight, isnoticeable.Many books show none of the clear proportions, but accidental ones. We do not knowwhy, but we can demonstrate that a human being finds planes of definite and intentionalproportions more pleasant or more beautiful than those of accidental proportions. Anugly format causes an ugly book. Since utility and beauty of all printed matter, whetherbook or flyer, ultimately depends on the page ratio of the paper size used, someonewanting to make a beautiful and pleasant book first has to determine a format of definiteproportions.However, a single definite ratio like 2:3, I:I.4I4 or 3:4 is not adequate for all kinds of books. Once again it is the purpose which determines not only the size of the book butalso page proportions. The wide ratio of 3 :4 is very well suited to books in quarto formatbecause they rest on a table. The same proportion of 3:4 would make a small pocketbook both unhandy and unseemly; even if it were not particularly heavy, we could hold itwith one hand for only a short time and in any case, the two halves of the book wouldalways fall backward: such a book is much too wide. The same applies to books in A5format (I4.8 X 2I cm; 57/8 X 81/4 in, I: root 2), unfortunately not so rare. A small or free-hand book has to be slim if we want to handle it easily. A ratio of 3 :4 would not besuitable; one of the following proportions is better:I.732 (very slim), 3:5, I:I.6I8, or 2:3.Small books have to be slim; large books may be wide. The small ones we hold in onehand; the large books rest on the table. The old sheet formats, all about 3 :4 inproportion, when folded yield ratios of 2:4 and 3:4 in succession; the quarter-sheet isquarto or 3 :4, the eighth is octavo or 2: 3 . The two major proportions of 2: 3 (octavo)and 3 :4 (quarto) form a sensible couple, like man and wife. The attempt to push themaside with the help of so-called normal formats, which use the hybrid ratio of I: root 2,goes against nature, like the wish to cancel the polarity of the sexes.
 
The new D I N raw sheet formats avoid the alternation of ratios 3:4 / 2.:3 / 3:4 / 2:3 andretain their original proportion when halved. This ratio is I:I.4I4. Sheets which, because of their grain, are suitable for quarto, I cannot use for octavo books, because the grainwould run the wrong way. Nor can I use them for sextodecimo books (I sheet = I6 leavesor pages) because the signature would be too thick. It follows that we would do just finewithout the sheet proportions of I: I.4I4 (see also figures 2 and 3).fig 2fig 3 The A4 format (2I X 29.7 cm; 8 1/4 X 11 3/4 in.) is well suited for two-columntypsetting of magazines, for which even A5 (I4.8 X ;2I cm; 5 7/8 X 8 1/4 in.) may beadequate; single-column typesetting on the other hand is seldom satisfactory in eitherformat. Moreover, A5 is unpleasant when hand held, because it is too wide, too unwieldyand inelegant. The book proportion of I.I.4I4 has existed once before, during the HighMiddle Ages, when many books were written with two columns. Gutenberg, however,preferred the page proportion of 2:3. During the Renaissance we seldom discover theratio of 1:1.414. On the other hand, we spot numerous definitely slim volumes of greatelegance, which should be our exemplars.Except for the four-column Codex Sinaiticus in the British Museum, one of the oldestbooks in the world, there have been few square books. There is no need for them. Astext-books they are needlessly low and of irksome width; as hand-held books they areunwieldy and more clumsy than any other format. During the Biedermeier era, a sedateand comfort-loving period, when typography and the art of making books began to fallapart, nearly square quarto and very wide octavo formats were not uncommon.Around the turn of the century it became apparent how hideous books had becomeduring the Biedermeier period. The type area was centered in the middle of the page,and the four margins were of equal width. All connection was lost between the pairs of 

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