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85669371 Science Focus 4 Course Book

85669371 Science Focus 4 Course Book

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 Answers to coursebook questions Chapter 1
 
©Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2005. This page from the
Science Focus 4 Teacher 
s Resource
may be photocopied for classroom use.
Unit 1.1 Writing chemical equations
1
Reactants, arrow, products
2
‘+’ means ‘and’; ‘
’ means ‘produces’ or ‘gives’.
3
Metallic, covalent, ionic
4
Matter can be neither created nor destroyed; it can only be changed from one formto another.
5
Because matter can be neither created nor destroyed, there must be the same number and types of atoms on both sides of the equation.
6
(s) for solid; (g) for gas; (l) for liquid; (aq) for substance dissolved in water 
7
25
o
C; 1 atmosphere
8
The Law of Conservation of Mass is another way of stating the Law of Conservationof Matter, only in reference to chemical equations. It indicates that the mass of reactants and products must be the same.
9
The small subscript numbers represent the number of the preceding atom or ion. Thelarge numbers are used in front of formulas to balance equations.
10
NaCl
(s)
is sodium chloride in crystalline form, NaCl
(aq)
is sodium chloride dissolved in water.
11
Molecules:
a
(CO
2
),
b
(H
2
O),
e
(N
2
),
g
(Ar). The rest (NaCl, Li
2
CO
3
and CaO) areionic lattices.
12
Calcium chloride: CaCl
2
(answer 
C
)
13
H
2
O is a molecular formula because there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygenatom in a water molecule. Na
2
SO
4
is an ionic compound, not a molecular formula, because it represents the ratio of sodium to sulfate ions in a lattice of sodium sulfate,not the actual number of atoms that can exist as a discrete unit.
14
Equation B is balanced. (2HNO
3
+ MgO
Mg(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O)
15
Equation A is not balanced. (C
5
H
12
+ 8O
2
 
CO
2
+ 6H
2
O; should be 5CO
2
.)
16 a
H
2
O
(l)
 b
CO
2(g)
 
c
H
2
SO
4(aq)
 
d
CaCl
2(s)
 
e
Ne
(g)
 
H
2(g)
 g
MgCO
3(s)
 h
HNO
3(aq)
 
17 a
Mg—metallic
 b
SrSO
4
 —ionic (between ions Sr 
2+
and SO
42– 
, but covalent within the sulfate ion,SO
42– 
)
c
O
2
 —covalent
 d
CO—covalent
e
CaCl
2
 —ionic
SO
2
 —covalent
 
 Answers to coursebook questions Chapter 1
 
©Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2005. This page from the
Science Focus 4 Teacher 
s Resource
may be photocopied for classroom use.
g
Na—metallic
h
Ar—no bonding. The element consists of individual atoms.
18 a
P
4(s)
+ 5O
2(g)
 
2P
2
O
5(s)
 
b
2KClO
3(s)
 
2KCl
(s)
+ 3O
2(g)
 
c
BaO
(s)
+ 2HNO
3(aq)
 
Ba(NO
3
)
2(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 
d
2Pb
3
O
4(s)
 
6PbO
(s)
+ O
2(g)
e
2Pb(NO
3
)
2(s)
 
2PbO
(s)
+ 4NO
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
 
19 a
2H
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
 
2H
2
O
(l)
 
b
2Na
(s)
+ Cl
2(g)
 
2NaCl
(s)
 
c
CaCO
3(s)
 
CaO
(s)
+ CO
2(g)
 
d
CH
4(g)
+ 2O
2(g)
 
CO
2(g)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
e
 
2HNO
3(aq)
+ Ca
(s)
 
Ca(NO
3
)
2 (aq)
+ H
2(g)
20 a
Reactants: copper(II) nitrate. Products: copper(II) oxide, nitrogen dioxide,oxygen.
b
copper(II) nitrate
copper(II) oxide + nitrogen dioxide + oxygen
c
2Cu(NO
3
)
2(s)
 
2CuO
(s)
+ 4NO
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
 
21
 
a i
sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid 
sodium chloride + water 
ii
NaOH(s) + HCl(aq)
NaCl(aq) + H
2
O(l)
b i
nitrogen + hydrogen
ammonia
ii
N
2(g)
+ 3H
2(g)
 
2NH
3(g)
 
c i
carbon monoxide + oxygen
carbon dioxide
ii
2CO
(g)
+ O
2(g)
 
2CO
2(g)
 
d i
iron + chlorine
iron(III) chloride
ii
2Fe
(s)
+ 3Cl
2(g)
 
2FeCl
2(s)
e i
sodium hydroxide + sulfuric acid 
sodium sulfate + water 
 
ii
2NaOH
(aq)
+ H
2
SO
4(aq)
 
Na
2
SO
4(aq)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
 
f i
ammonium nitrate
ammonium ions + nitrate ions
 
ii
NH
4
 NO
3(s)
 
NH
4+(aq)
+ NO
3 – (aq)
 
g i
hydrochloric acid + calcium metal
calcium chloride + hydrogen gas
ii
2HCl
(aq)
+ Ca
(s)
 
CaCl
2(aq)
+ H
2(g)
22
The CO
2
gas has escaped to the atmosphere.
23 a
sodium
(s)
+ oxygen
(g)
 
sodium oxide
(s)
 
b
4Na + O
2
 
2Na
2
O
 
c
4Na
(s)
+ O
2(g)
 
2Na
2
O
(s)
 
d
mass of reactants = mass of products
Unit 1.2 More and faster! Rate and yield considerations
1 a
An explosion
b
Rusting of iron
2
The yield is the amount of product obtained.
3
The rate of reaction is how fast the reaction proceeds.
4
The ideal yield would be 100%.
 
 Answers to coursebook questions Chapter 1
 
©Pearson Education Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2005. This page from the
Science Focus 4 Teacher 
s Resource
may be photocopied for classroom use.
5
If industrial reactions do not have a fast reaction rate and good yield, they will not be economically viable.
6
A reaction will proceed faster if you heat it or add a catalyst.
7
It is the king of chemicals because it is produced in huge quantities worldwide and can be used to make many different chemicals and materials. It has many uses dueto its varied properties.
8
Sulfuric acid can be used to make fertilisers, paints and pigments, and rayon.
9
Concentrated sulfuric acid is corrosive, colourless, oily, soluble and a strong acid.
10
Vanadium (V) oxide
11 a
H
2
SO
4
 
b
SO
2
 
c
SO
3
d
H
2
S
2
O
7
 
12
Using several catalyst beds maximises the chance of reaction, and hence the yield of the reaction.
13
A possible reason for calling it the contact process is that, by passing the gases over several catalyst beds, the yield is increased due to the closer contact of the gasmolecules.
14
In the converter, sulfur dioxide is reacted with oxygen, and converted to sulfur trioxide. The rate is increased by using a high temperature which increases thefrequency of molecule collisions. The yield is increased by using a catalyst.
15
S
(l)
+ O
2(g)
 
SO
2(g)
2SO
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
 
2SO
3(g)
SO
3(g)
+ H
2
SO
4(l)
 
H
2
S
2
O
7(l)
H
2
S
2
O
7(l)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 
2H
2
SO
4(l)
 
16
Diagrammatic answer required 
17
Conditions in the reaction need to be modified to produce a maximum yield at a fastrate. Generally, this is achieved by changing temperature, changing pressure, using acatalyst, adding reactant and removing product.
18
Hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen
19
The percentage yield is 82.5%.
Unit 1.3 100% organic
1
‘Organic chemistry’ means the chemistry of covalent carbon compounds.
2
The main elements in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
3
A hydrocarbon is a compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen.
4
Single bond = one shared pair of electrons, double bond = two shared pairs of electrons, triple bond = three shared pairs of electrons.
5
 
a
Single bonds only: ethane, methane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, etc
b
Double bonds: ethene, propene, etc

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