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Vitamins

Vitamins

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Published by Armando

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Published by: Armando on Apr 30, 2009
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12/23/2012

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Introduction to Vitamins
Vitamins are organic molecules that function in a wide variety of capacities within the body.The most prominent function is as cofactors for enzymatic reactions. The distinguishingfeature of the vitamins is that they generally cannot be synthesized by mammalian cells and,therefore, must be supplied in the diet. The vitamins are of two distinct types:
Water Soluble VitaminsFat Soluble Vitamins
1
) 
o
B
1
2
 
) 
6
) 
) 
o
B
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Thiamin
Thiamin structure
Thiamin is also known as vitamin B
1
. Thiamin is derived from a substituted pyrimidine and athiazole which are coupled by a methylene bridge. Thiamin is rapidly converted to its activeform, thiamin pyrophosphate, TPP, in the brain and liver by a specific enzymes, thiamindiphosphotransferase.
 
Thiamin pyrophosphate
TPP is necessary as a cofactor for the pyruvate and
α
-ketoglutarate dehydrogenasecatalyzed reactions as well as the transketolase catalyzed reactions of the pentosephosphate pathway. A deficiency in thiamin intake leads to a severely reduced capacity of cells to generate energy as a result of its role in these reactions.The dietary requirement for thiamin is proportional to the caloric intake of the diet and rangesfrom 1.0 - 1.5 mg/day for normal adults. If the carbohydrate content of the diet is excessivethen an in thiamin intake will be required.
Riboflavin
 
Riboflavin structure
Riboflavin is also known as vitamin B
2
. Riboflavin is the precursor for the coenzymes, flavinmononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The enzymes that requireFMN or FAD as cofactors are termed flavoproteins. Several flavoproteins also contain metalions and are termed metalloflavoproteins. Both classes of enzymes are involved in a widerange of redox reactions, e.g. succinate dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase. During thecourse of the enzymatic reactions involving the flavoproteins the reduced forms of FMN andFAD are formed, FMNH
2
and FADH
2
, respectively.
 
Structure of FAD
nitrogens 1 & 5 carry hydrogens in FADH
2
The normal daily requirement for riboflavin is 1.2 - 1.7 mg/day for normal adults.
Niacin
NicotinamideNicotinic Acid
Niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) is also known as vitamin B
3
. Both nicotinic acid andnicotinamide can serve as the dietary source of vitamin B
3
. Niacin is required for thesynthesis of the active forms of vitamin B
3
, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD
+
) andnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP
+
). Both NAD
+
and NADP
+
function ascofactors for numerous dehydrogenase, e.g., lactate and malate dehydrogenases.

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