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Table Of Contents

1.1Introduction
1.3Meristems as a source of cells in the plant
1.4Patterning of cellular architecture
1.5The cellular decision to proliferate or not to proliferate
1.7The supracellular organisation of growth
1.7.2Cell division and organ initiation
1.7.3Coordination of organ initiation
1.8Conclusions
2.2.2 Regulation of phyllotaxis
2.3 Leaf initiation
2.3.1 Role of expansin in leaf initiation
2.3.2 Molecular markers of leaf initiation
2.4 Development of leaf symmetry
2.4.1 Adaxial domain
2.4.2 Abaxial domain
2.5 Development of simple leaf architecture
2.5.2 Monocots
2.6 Development of compound leaf architecture
2.6.1 Molecular regulation of blastozone activity
2.6.1.1 KNOX genes
2.6.1.2 Phantastica
2.7 Leaf expansion
2.8 Development of internal leaf architecture
2.8.1 Cell division and tissue patterning
2.8.2 Vascular pattern formation
2.8.3 Epidermal cell pattern
2.8.3.1 Stomate pattern
2.8.3.2 Trichome pattern
2.9 Concluding remarks
3.1Introduction
3.2Plant growth hormones and genes regulating their levels
3.2.1Auxin,gibberellin and brassinosteroid
3.4Dwarfism not mediated by hormones
3.5The green revolution
3.6Interactions between hormones
3.7Regulation of stem length by environmental factors
3.7.1Effects of light on stem growth
3.7.1.1De-etiolation
3.7.1.2Shade-avoidance
3.7.1.3Photoperiod
3.7.2Mediation of light effects by hormones
4.1.2Responses to decapitation
4.2 Branch positions and morphologies
4.2.1Developmental zones
4.2.2Shoot dimorphism:orthotropic vs. plagiotropic development
4.2.3Relative timing:proleptic vs. sylleptic branching
4.2.4Reiteration:monopodial vs. sympodial systems
4.3 Bud initiation
4.3.1Bud initiation genes
4.3.1.1Lateral suppressor (Ls)
4.3.1.6Interaction of initiation genes
4.4 Bud dormancy and branch outgrowth
4.4.1Branch outgrowth genes
4.4.2Physiology of branching mutants
4.4.3Shoot branching and apical dominance models
4.4.4Branching control:more than auxin and cytokinin
4.5 Environmental influences
4.5.1Light effects
4.5.1.1Photoperiod
4.5.2Nutrition
4.6 Conclusions and prospects
5.2 Phyllotaxy and merosity
5.2.1 Genetic control of floral phyllotaxy
5.2.2 Genetic control of merosity
5.2.3 Evolutionary aspects of phyllotaxy and merosity
5.3 Floral symmetry
5.3.1 Genetic control of floral symmetry
5.3.2 Evolutionary aspects of floral symmetry
5.4 Floral organ identity
5.4.1 Genetic control of floral organ identity
5.4.2Evolutionary aspects of floral organ identity
5.5 Elaboration of organ identity
5.6 Sex determination as a modification of floral architecture
5.7 Future perspectives
6Inflorescence architecture
6.1Determinate and indeterminate inflorescence types
6.2Simple and compound inflorescences
6.2.1 Simple inflorescences
6.2.2 Compound inflorescences
6.3Growth and branching patterns of shoots
6.4Vegetative to reproductive transition
6.5Meristem identity
6.5.1 Shoot/inflorescence meristem identity
6.5.2 Flower meristem identity genes
6.6Genetic regulation of inflorescence architecture
6.6.1 Maize inflorescence development
6.6.2 Pea mutants
6.6.3 Tomato inflorescence development
6.6.4 Petunia inflorescence development
6.6.5 Capitulum development
6.6.6 Arabidopsis inflorescence development
6.7Evolution of inflorescence architecture
7Root architecture
7.1Introduction – an evolutionary perspective
7.2Basic root systems
7.2.1 Taproot systems
7.2.2 Fibrous root systems
7.2.3 Roots of desert plants
7.2.4 Food storage roots
7.3Regulation of root architecture
7.3.1 Embryonic root development
7.4Parts of the root system
7.4.1 Primary root tip
7.4.2 Internal root structure
7.5Genetics of postembryonic root development
7.5.1 Root hairs
7.6.2 Effects of nutrient availability on root branching
7.6.3.1 Phosphatidic acid
7.6.3.2 Alkamides and N-acylethanolamines
7.7.1 Signaling in plant–microbe interactions
7.8Conclusions
8 Woody tree architecture
8.2.1Vascular differentiation
8.2.2Radial patterns
8.2.3Ecotypes
8.3 Mechanisms and constraints
8.3.1Apical dominance
8.3.2Apical control
8.3.3Leaf vs. wood allocation
8.3.4Stability
8.4 Inter-specific patterns
8.4.1Architectural tree models
8.4.2Tree dimensions
8.5 Intra-specific patterns
8.6 Within-tree patterns
8.7 Applications in forestry
9.1Introduction
9.2Nature of plant architecture:basic concepts
9.2.1 Meristem activity and phyllotaxy
9.2.2 Differentiation of axes
9.2.3 Architectural gradients
9.3Representing and analysing plant architecture
9.3.1 Representing plants as graphs
9.3.2 Coding plant architecture
9.3.3 3-D Digitizing
9.3.4 Analysis of plant architecture databases
9.3.4.3 The fractal nature of plants
9.4Modelling functions on static structures
9.4.1 Models of plant–environment interaction
9.4.1.1 Light capture
9.4.1.2Rainfall interception
9.4.1.3Momentum transfer
9.4.1.4Scalar transfer
9.4.1.5Accounting for gravity
9.4.2Transport models
9.5Models of plant development
9.5.1Dynamic systems with dynamic structure
9.5.1.1Specific approaches
9.5.2Descriptive models
9.5.2.1Bottom–up geometric approaches
9.5.2.2Top–down geometric approaches
9.5.3Reactive models
9.5.3.1Management of fluxes
9.5.3.2Reaction to the environment
9.5.3.3Integrated reactive models
9.6Conclusion and perspectives
Hors-d’oeuvre:tender asparagus in melted lemon and Parmesan butter
The wine list
Starter:rosemary and Taleggio stuffed tomatoes on a bed of herbs
Main course:pea and Pecorino risotto with saffron
Dessert:individual apple tarts with strawberry coulis
Coffee served with Deglet Noor
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Plant Architecture and Its Manipulation

Plant Architecture and Its Manipulation

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Published by kukaraja
Plant architecture definition
Plant architecture definition

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: kukaraja on Jun 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/07/2013

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