give a mastery of the language, a correctness of expression inreading, in writing, and in speaking, and to do this through afamiliarity with the best Greek and Latin authors. ... It iscertain that to some extent mathematics, music, and rudimentarydialectics were introduced into the grammar schools. . . . Thiacombination of function continued, especially in smaller com-munities, late into imperial times.' ^(6) The rhetorical school was attended usually, fromthe age of fourteen upwards, by the wealthy or moreambitious students. The purpose of this school was toprepare the student for public life by training in litera-ture, composition, public speaking, and good manners.Most cities had such schools.Quintilian complains :* The rhetoricians, especially our own, have reHnquished a partof their duties, and . . . the grammarians have appropriatedwhat does not belong to them. . . . Let grammar know its ownboundaries ; . . . for, though but weak at its source, yet, havinggained strength from the poets and historians, it now flows onin a full channel ; since, besides the art of speaking correctly, . . .it has engrossed the study of almost all the highest departmentsof learning.' ^(c) The university gave opportunity for specialtraining in the higher branches of knowledge. Herephilosophy and criticism were the chief studies. Thegreat universities were those of Alexandria in Egypt,Pergamon in Asia Minor, Antioch in Syria, Athens in1 Monroe, History of Education^ pp. 198 seq.• Watson, (Quintilian' s Institutes of Oratory, ii. 1, 2.CH. IV.] GREEK AD ROMA EDUCATIO 39Greece, Rome in Italy. There were also smaller univer-sities at Tarsus in Cilicia, and elsewhere.According to Sandys,^ Athens ' continued to befrequented as a school of philosophy.' ' The scholarsof Alexandria were . . . mainly but not exclusivelyconcerned with the verbal criticism of the Greek poets.'