Quotations from research studies on ancient Egypt and the peopling of the Nile valley
Quotations from research studies on ancient Egyptand the peopling of the Nile valley
Recent study finds the ancient Egyptians had a tropical body plan like sub-Saharan 'black' Africans andwere not cold-adapted like European type populations
"The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians had the “super-Negroid” body plan described by Robins(1983).. This pattern is supported by Figure 7 (a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths; data fromRuff, 1994), which indicates that the Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the Egyptian samples,only the Badarian and Early Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than predicted from femoral length.Despite these differences, all samples lie relatively clustered together as compared to the other populations."
(Zakrzewski, S.R. (2003). "Variation in ancient Egyptian stature and body proportions". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229.
Ancient Egyptians most related to other Africans and are part of a Nilotic continuity rather thansomething Mediterranean or Middle Eastern
"Certainly there was some foreign admixture [in Egypt], but basically a homogeneous African populationhad lived in the Nile Valley from ancient to modern times... [the] Badarian people, who developed theearliest Predynastic Egyptian culture, already exhibited the mix of North African and Sub-Saharan physicaltraits that have typified Egyptians ever since (Hassan 1985; Yurco 1989; Trigger 1978; Keita 1990.. et al.,)...The peoples of Egypt, the Sudan, and much of East African Ethiopia and Somalia are now generallyregarded as a Nilotic continuity, with widely ranging physical features (complexions light to dark, varioushair and craniofacial types) but with powerful common cultural traits, including cattle pastoralist traditions..
Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review," 1996 -in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, Black Athena Revisited, 1996, The University of North Carolina Press, p. 62-100)
Modern DNA studies find even though some African peoples look different, they are genetically relatedthrough the PN2 transition clade of the Y-chromosone. Thus light-skinned African Libyans and dark-skinned Zulus are all genetically related Africans ,even though they don't look exactly the same.
"But the Y-chromosome clade defined by the PN2 transition (PN2/M35, PN2/M2) shatters the boundaries of phenotypically defined races and true breeding populations across a great geographical expanse. African peoples with a range of skin colors, hair forms and physiognomies have substantial percentages of males whoseY chromosomes form closely related clades with each other, but not with others who are phenotypically similar.The individuals in the morphologically or geographically defined 'races' are not characterized by 'private'distinct lineages restricted to each of them."
(S O Y Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
"Recall that the Horn–Nile Valley crania show, as a group, the largest overlap with other regions. A review of the recent literature indicates that there are male lineage ties between African peoples who have beentraditionally labeled as being ‘‘racially’’ different, with ‘‘racially’’ implying an ontologically deep divide. The1