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Quotations from research studies on ancient Egypt and the peopling of the Nile valley

Quotations from research studies on ancient Egypt and the peopling of the Nile valley

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Quotations from mainstream research on ancient Egypt with academic references cited. Free for use by all.
"Ancient Egyptian civilization was, in ways and to an extent usually not recognized, fundamentally African. The evidence of both language and culture reveals these African roots. The origins of Egyptian ethnicity lay in the areas south of Egypt. The ancient Egyptian language belonged to the Afrasian family (also called Afroasiatic or, formerly, Hamito-Semitic). The speakers of the earliest Afrasian languages, according to recent studies, were a set of peoples whose lands between 15,000 and 13,000 B.C. stretched from Nubia in the west to far northern Somalia in the east. (Christopher Ehret (1996) "Ancient Egyptian as an African Language, Egypt as an African Culture." In Egypt in Africa Egypt in Africa, Theodore Celenko (ed), Indiana University Press)

"There is now a sufficient body of evidence from modern studies of skeletal remains to indicate that the ancient Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians, exhibited physical characteristics that are within the range of variation for ancient and modern indigenous peoples of the Sahara and tropical Africa.. In general, the inhabitants of Upper Egypt and Nubia had the greatest biological affinity to people of the Sahara and more southerly areas." (Nancy C. Lovell, " Egyptians, physical anthropology of," in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and New York: Routledge, 1999) pp 328-332)

"Ancient Egypt belongs to a language group known as 'Afro-Asiatic' (formerly called Hamito-Semitic) and its closest relatives are other north-east African languages from Somalia to Chad. Egypt's cultural features, both material and ideological and particularly in the earliest phases, show clear connections with that same broad area. In sum, ancient Egypt was an African culture, developed by African peoples, who had wide ranging contacts in north Africa and western Asia." (Morkot, Robert (2005) The Egyptians: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 10)
Quotations from mainstream research on ancient Egypt with academic references cited. Free for use by all.
"Ancient Egyptian civilization was, in ways and to an extent usually not recognized, fundamentally African. The evidence of both language and culture reveals these African roots. The origins of Egyptian ethnicity lay in the areas south of Egypt. The ancient Egyptian language belonged to the Afrasian family (also called Afroasiatic or, formerly, Hamito-Semitic). The speakers of the earliest Afrasian languages, according to recent studies, were a set of peoples whose lands between 15,000 and 13,000 B.C. stretched from Nubia in the west to far northern Somalia in the east. (Christopher Ehret (1996) "Ancient Egyptian as an African Language, Egypt as an African Culture." In Egypt in Africa Egypt in Africa, Theodore Celenko (ed), Indiana University Press)

"There is now a sufficient body of evidence from modern studies of skeletal remains to indicate that the ancient Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians, exhibited physical characteristics that are within the range of variation for ancient and modern indigenous peoples of the Sahara and tropical Africa.. In general, the inhabitants of Upper Egypt and Nubia had the greatest biological affinity to people of the Sahara and more southerly areas." (Nancy C. Lovell, " Egyptians, physical anthropology of," in Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed. Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert, ( London and New York: Routledge, 1999) pp 328-332)

"Ancient Egypt belongs to a language group known as 'Afro-Asiatic' (formerly called Hamito-Semitic) and its closest relatives are other north-east African languages from Somalia to Chad. Egypt's cultural features, both material and ideological and particularly in the earliest phases, show clear connections with that same broad area. In sum, ancient Egypt was an African culture, developed by African peoples, who had wide ranging contacts in north Africa and western Asia." (Morkot, Robert (2005) The Egyptians: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 10)

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Quotations from research studies on ancient Egypt and the peopling of the Nile valley
Quotations from research studies on ancient Egyptand the peopling of the Nile valley
Recent study finds the ancient Egyptians had a tropical body plan like sub-Saharan 'black' Africans andwere not cold-adapted like European type populations
QUOTE:
"The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians had the “super-Negroid” body plan described by Robins(1983).. This pattern is supported by Figure 7 (a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths; data fromRuff, 1994), which indicates that the Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the Egyptian samples,only the Badarian and Early Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than predicted from femoral length.Despite these differences, all samples lie relatively clustered together as compared to the other populations."
(Zakrzewski, S.R. (2003). "Variation in ancient Egyptian stature and body proportions". American Journal of  Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 219-229.
Ancient Egyptians most related to other Africans and are part of a Nilotic continuity rather thansomething Mediterranean or Middle Eastern
"Certainly there was some foreign admixture [in Egypt], but basically a homogeneous African populationhad lived in the Nile Valley from ancient to modern times... [the] Badarian people, who developed theearliest Predynastic Egyptian culture, already exhibited the mix of North African and Sub-Saharan physicaltraits that have typified Egyptians ever since (Hassan 1985; Yurco 1989; Trigger 1978; Keita 1990.. et al.,)...The peoples of Egypt, the Sudan, and much of East African Ethiopia and Somalia are now generallyregarded as a Nilotic continuity, with widely ranging physical features (complexions light to dark, varioushair and craniofacial types) but with powerful common cultural traits, including cattle pastoralist traditions..
 Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review," 1996 -in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, Black  Athena Revisited, 1996, The University of North Carolina Press, p. 62-100)
Modern DNA studies find even though some African peoples look different, they are genetically relatedthrough the PN2 transition clade of the Y-chromosone. Thus light-skinned African Libyans and dark-skinned Zulus are all genetically related Africans ,even though they don't look exactly the same.
"But the Y-chromosome clade defined by the PN2 transition (PN2/M35, PN2/M2) shatters the boundaries of  phenotypically defined races and true breeding populations across a great geographical expanse. African peoples with a range of skin colors, hair forms and physiognomies have substantial percentages of males whoseY chromosomes form closely related clades with each other, but not with others who are phenotypically similar.The individuals in the morphologically or geographically defined 'races' are not characterized by 'private'distinct lineages restricted to each of them."
(S O Y Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation,"  Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
"Recall that the Horn–Nile Valley crania show, as a group, the largest overlap with other regions. A review of the recent literature indicates that there are male lineage ties between African peoples who have beentraditionally labeled as being ‘‘racially’’ different, with ‘‘racially’’ implying an ontologically deep divide. The1
 
Quotations from research studies on ancient Egypt and the peopling of the Nile valley
PN2 transition, a Y chromosome marker, defines a lineage (within the YAPþ derived haplogroup E or III) thatemerged in Africa probably before the last glacial maximum, but after the migration of modern humans fromAfrica (see Semino et al., 2004). This mutation forms a clade that has two daughter subclades (defined by the biallelic markers M35/215 (or 215/M35) and M2) that unites numerous phenotypically variant African populations from the supra-Saharan, Saharan, and sub-Saharan regions.."
(S.O.Y Keita. Exploring northeast African metric craniofacial variation at the individual level: A comparative study using principal component analysis. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 16:679–689, 2004.)http://www.geocities.com/nilevalleypeoples/keita2004neanalysis.htm 
"Africa contains tremendous cultural, linguistic and genetic diversity, and has more than 2,000 distinct ethnicgroups and languages.. Studies using mitochondrial (mt)DNA and nuclear DNA markers consistently indicatethat Africa is the most genetically diverse region of the world."
(
Tishkoff SA, Williams SM., Genetic analysis of African populations: human evolution and complex disease. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2002 Aug (8):611-21.)
 DNA of some modern Egyptians found a genetic ancestral heritage to East Africa:
"The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of 58 individuals from Upper Egypt, more than half (34individuals) from Gurna, whose population has an ancient cultural history, were studied by sequencing thecontrol-region and screening diagnostic RFLP markers. This sedentary population presented similarities to theEthiopian population by the L1 and L2 macrohaplogroup frequency (20.6%), by the West Eurasian component(defined by haplogroups H to K and T to X) and particularly by a high frequency (17.6%) of haplogroup M1.We statistically and phylogenetically analysed and compared the Gurna population with other Egyptian, Near East and sub-Saharan Africa populations; AMOVA and Minimum Spanning Network analysis showed that theGurna population was not isolated from neighbouring populations. Our results suggest that the Gurna population has conserved the trace of an ancestral genetic structure from an ancestral East African population,characterized by a high M1 haplogroup frequency. The current structure of the Egyptian population may be theresult of further influence of neighbouring populations on this ancestral population."
(Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, et al. (2004) Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary population from Egypt.Ann Hum Genet. 68(Pt 1):23-39.)
Other DNA quotes from S.O.Y. Keita
 
Quotations from research studies on ancient Egypt and the peopling of the Nile valley
Recent DNA studies of the Sudan show genetic unity and linkage between the Sudanic, Horn, Egyptian,Nubian and other Nilotic peoples, confirming earlier skeletal/cranial studies and historical data. (Yurco(1989, 1996), Keita (1993,2004, 2005) Lovell (1999), Zakrewski (2003, 2007) et. al). Of note is that DNAdata shows that one of the oldest Egyptian populations, the Copts, have a significant frequency of the B-M60 marker, indicating early colonization of Egypt by Nilotics in the state formation period.QUOTES:
"Haplogroup E-M78, however, is more widely distributed and is thought to have an origin in eastern African.More recently, this haplogroup has been carefully dissected and was found to depict several well-establishedsubclades with defined geographical clustering (Cruciani et al., 2006, 2007). Although this haplogroup iscommon to most Sudanese populations, it has exceptionally high frequency among populations like those of western Sudan (particularly Darfur) and the Beja in eastern Sudan... Although the PC plot places the Beja andAmhara from Ethiopia in one sub-cluster based on shared frequencies of the haplogroup J1, the distribution of M78 subclades (Table 2) indicates that the Beja are perhaps related as well to the Oromo on the basis of theconsiderable frequencies of E-V32 among Oromo in comparison to Amhara (Cruciani etal., 2007)...These findings affirm the historical contact between Ethiopia and eastern Sudan (1998), and the fact that these populations speak languages of the Afroasiatic family tree reinforces the strong correlation between linguisticand genetic diversity (Cavalli-Sforza, 1997).""Genetic continuum of the Nubians with their kin in southern Egypt is indicated by comparable frequencies of E-V12 the predominant M78 subclade among southern Egyptians.""The Copt samples displayed a most interesting Y-profile, enough (as much as that of Gaalien in Sudan) tosuggest that they actually represent a living record of the peopling of Egypt. The significant frequency of B-M60 in this group might be a relic of a history of colonization of southern Egypt probably by Nilotics in theearly state formation, something that conforms both to recorded history and to Egyptian mythology."
Source:(Hisham Y. Hassan 1, Peter A. Underhill 2, Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza 2, Muntaser E. Ibrahim 1. (2008). Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: Restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history. Am J Phys Anthropology, 2008.)
Older research notes the physical makeup of the Copts, now confirmed by recent DNA data avove:
"In Libya, which is mostly desert and oasis, there is a visible Negroid element in the sedentary populations, andat the same is true of the Fellahin of Egypt, whether Copt or Muslim. Osteological studies have shown that the Negroid element was stronger in predynastic times than at present, reflecting an early movement northwardalong the banks of the Nile, which were then heavily forested."(Encyclopedia Britannica 1984 ed. "Populations,Human")3

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