Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Study of Theology in Universities, 12th and 13th Centuries

The Study of Theology in Universities, 12th and 13th Centuries

|Views: 5|Likes:

More info:

Published by: GLENN DALE PEASE on Jun 15, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





THE STUDY OF THEOLOGY I UIVERSITIES, 12TH AD 13THCETURIESBY CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGSThe study of theology, which had so greatly revived inthe eleventh century, increased in public interest in thetwelfth and attained its highest development in thethirteenth century, especially in the universities, andthrough the great scholastics, who were attached chieflyto the new mendicant orders.1. At the beginning of the twelfth century there was agreat revival in the study of law, both civil law and canonlaw, favoured especially by the establishment of the Uni-versity of Bologna under the famous teacher Irnerius.The twelfth century witnessed a great revival in thestudy of law, due doubtless to the confhct between thepopes and the emperors, which Hildebrand had carriedon with so much vigour, and which was to continuethrough the entire Middle Age. Both sides neededtrained lawyers to maintain their cause.The study of law had been carried on from the mostancient times in the great Italian centres, especially atHome. When the Lombards established themselves inthe north and Pavia became their chief seat of learning,it also became a school of law. So Ravenna, the seatof the exarchate, had become from the seventh centurya centre for the study of law. But for the most part thisbranch of learning was studied under private teachers,CH. m.] THE EARLY UIVERSITIES 41and the teaching and practice were closely connectedunder leading lawyers, both civil and ecclesiastical.In the eleventh century both Lombard and Roman lawwere certainly taught in the school of Pavia. ButRavenna seems to have been the chief law school in thelast half of the eleventh century.^
Bologna, which had long been famous as a school of grammar and rhetoric, began in the twelfth century tobe a legal centre. The origin of the law school at Bolognais involved in some obscurity. It first comes intoprominence with Irnerius (1100-1130), a teacher of Roman civil law. He had been preceded by Pepo,who lectured on the ' Old Digest.' The whole of theDigest was probably first discussed by Irnerius. Thegreat increase of students of law brought about theseparation of these students from all others. All thestudents began to organise themselves into guilds forself-protection, defence and mutual assistance, dividingthemselves into four nations ; and so the schools of Bologna became a university of students, an organisationof students, electing their own officers. The teachersalso organised themselves for mutual protection into aguild, and thus the University of Bologna originated.The canon law was developing alongside of the civillaw. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals had given it agreat impulse in the ninth century ; and, on the basisof these, other compilations of papal decrees were made.In the eleventh century the chief were : the Decretumof Burchard of Worms (1012-1023), the Collectio canonumof Anselm of Lucca (f 1086), the Liber canonum of Cardinal Deusdedit (f 1086-1087). In the first part of thetwelfth century the Panormia of Ivo of Chartres (f c,1116), and the Decretum, probably by the same author,were the most complete collections. They were thebasis of the Decretum of Gratian, which became the great1 Vide Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, i. p. 107.42 HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF THEOLOGY [pt. ltext-book for canon law, the basis for all mediaevalcanonists. The proper title of Gratian's compilation is :Concordantia discordantium Canonum. It was probablypublished in 1142.^ Gratian was a Camaldulensianmonk and a teacher of canon law at Bologna. RolandBandinelli, a cotemporary of Gratian, a teacher of theology at Bologna and afterwards Pope Alexander in.,also wrote a Summa of canon law, which has beenpreserved.As Rashdall says :
' Bologna was absorbed with the questions about Investiture,about the relations of Papacy and Empire, Church and State,Feudalism and civic liberty, while the schools of France weredistracted by questions about the Unity of Intellect, aboutTransubstantiation, about the reaUty of Universals.' ^In the thirteenth century the canon law developedstill further in five books of Decretals, published byGregory ix., to which Liber Sextus was added by BonifaceVIII. The Corpus juris cano7iici was completed by add-ing the Clementines of Clement v., published in 1317,and the Extravagants, extending down to the time of Sixtus rv. ' The Decretum (of Gratian) was a text-book : the Decretals were a Code.' Rashdall says :' At aU periods of the Middle Age it was the Canonists whofilled the most important sees in Christendom. ... It waschiefly through the Canon Law that the Civil Law transformedthe jurisprudence of nearly the whole of continental Europe.' *2. The University of Paris grew out of the cathedralschool, owing to the great increase of professors and studentsin the middle of the twelfth century, but was not fullyorganised until the thirteenth century.The chancellor of the cathedral of Paris had the soleauthority to license teachers. As the teachers grew in1 Schulte, Geschichte der Qudlen und Literatur des Canonischen RechtSyi. p. 48 ; Rashdall, 1. p. 132.2 Rashdall, i. pp. 139 seq_. » Ibid., i. pp. 142 ieq.CH. m.] THE EARLY UIVERSITIES 43number, there was not room for them all in the cathedralprecincts ; therefore some were licensed to teach on thelittle bridge connecting the cathedral isle with the main-land to the south, and also on the mainland, the studentsresiding wherever they could. The teachers graduallycame together in a guild or association, somewhere aboutthe middle of the twelfth century (1150-1170).i Aftera teacher was licensed by the chancellor he was initiatedinto the association of masters. There arose an in-

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->