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Nevado Del Ruiz Case Study - Copy

Nevado Del Ruiz Case Study - Copy

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Published by 3alliumcourt

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Published by: 3alliumcourt on May 01, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia.
Past History.Nevado del Ruiz
generated killer mud flows in 1595 shortly after the arrival of Spanishcolonists and again in 1845. Hundreds died in settlements located at the site of
.However, after the 1845 eruption
Nevado del
Ruiz was
for 140 years. People forgotabout the destruction and devastation and
was built on the same site, growing to atown of 30,000 by 1980.
The 1985 Event.Summary:
As many as 20,000 people may have died in western Colombia after this longdormant volcano in the Andes erupted sending torrents of mud and water flooding the townof
Armero. 85%
of the town was washed away by the
and flood. The November 13,1985 eruption took place during night. Although Armero was 74 km (44.5 mi) from the
of Nevado del Ruiz, it took the lahar only two and a half hours to reach the village. A warningdid not reach the people in time.
The 1985
began when twenty million cubic meters of hot
and rocks
from the
of the volcano and rained down or flowed across the ice and snow-coveredsummit. The hot ash and gases moved across the snow pack in avalanches of hot volcanicdebris (
) and fast-moving, hot, turbulent clouds of gas and ash (
). The hot pyroclastic flows and surges caused rapid melting of the snow and ice. Thisreleased a lot of water and debris that swept down canyons from the summit. The mud flows
gained volume and
until they were as much as 40 m (132 ft) thick, travelling atspeeds of up to 50 km/hr (30 mi/hr).
Short Term Effects:
3 days after the disaster the government still had no plan of action.
Communications like roads were cut by destroyed bridges and buried roads.
This greatly delayed rescuers getting there quickly.
Colombia is a developing country with a very limited number of helicopters. Peoplestranded in the mud couldn’t be reached because of the deep mud flow.
Risk of spreading disease.
Health workers administered about 80,000 doses of tetanus and typhoid vaccines.
By the end of last week soldiers had set fire to piles of bodies and shot stray dogsand pigs to prevent the spread of disease.
Thousands of prime farming land was destroyed.
When rescuers arrived at Armero on November 14, they were greeted by a horriblescene.
They found tangled masses of trees, cars, and mutilated bodies scattered throughoutan ocean of gray mud. Injured survivors lay moaning in agony while workers triedfrantically to save them.
Altogether, about 23,000 people and 15,000 animals were killed.
Another 4500 people were injured and about 8000 people were made homeless.
The estimated cost of the disaster is $1,000,000,000, or about one-fifth of theColombia's Gross National Product
Pinatubo, PhilippinesThe
of Mt.Pinatubo in1991 stands asthe secondlargesteruption in the20th Century(Mt. Novarupta,Alaska 1912claims largesteruptionfame).
deposits 5 cm(2 in) thick or more covereda land area of about 4,000squarekilometers(1,544 squaresmiles) burningcrops and other plant life around Pinatubo. A typhoon struck the area after the eruption. The weight of therain-saturated ash,
shaking and strong winds, caused numerous roofs to collapse in thecommunities around the
,including at the two large U.S. military bases Clark and Subic Bay.The effects of the eruption were not limited to the area around Pinatubo. The eruption of Mt. Pinatuboaffected weather around the globe. Huge quantities of particles from Pinatubo's tall ash cloud injected intothe global wind system in the
. These particles affected the weather in two ways. Tiny

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