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Introduction
1.1 Overview
1.2 Structural Engineering
1.2.1 Structural Analysis
1.2.2 Main Regions vs Local Regions
1.2.3 Member and Joint Design
1.3 Six Component Models of the Uniﬁed Theory
1.3.1 Principles and Applications of the Six Models
1.3.2 Historical Development of Theories for Reinforced Concrete
1.4 Struts-and-ties Model
1.4.1 General Description
1.4.2 Struts-and-ties Model for Beams
1.4.3 Struts-and-ties Model for Knee Joints
Equilibrium (Plasticity) Truss Model
2.1 Basic Equilibrium Equations
2.1.1 Equilibrium in Bending
2.1.2 Equilibrium in Element Shear
2.1.3 Equilibrium in Beam Shear
2.1.4 Equilibrium in Torsion
Table 2.1 Summary of basic equilibrium equations
2.2 Interaction Relationships
2.2.1 Shear–Bending Interaction
2.2.2 Torsion–Bending Interaction
2.2.3 Shear–Torsion–Bending Interaction
2.2.4 Axial Tension–Shear–Bending Interaction
2.3 ACI Shear and Torsion Provisions
2.3.1 Torsional Steel Design
2.3.2 Shear Steel Design
2.3.3 Maximum Shear and Torsional Strengths
2.3.4 Other Design Considerations
2.3.5 Design Example
2.4 Comments on the Equilibrium (Plasticity) Truss Model
3.1 Linear Bending Theory
3.1.1 Bernoulli Compatibility Truss Model
3.1.2 Transformed Area for Reinforcing Bars
3.1.3 Bending Rigidities of Cracked Sections
3.1.4 Bending Rigidities of Uncracked Sections
3.1.5 Bending Deﬂections of Reinforced Concrete Members
3.2 Nonlinear Bending Theory
3.2.1 Bernoulli Compatibility Truss Model
3.2.2 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams
3.2.4 Flanged Beams
3.2.5 Moment–Curvature (M–φ) Relationships
3.3 Combined Bending and Axial Load
3.3.2 Balanced Condition
3.3.3 Tension Failure
3.3.4 Compression Failure
3.3.6 Moment–Axial Load–Curvature (M−N −φ) Relationship
Fundamentals of Shear
4.1 Stresses in 2-D Elements
4.1.1 Stress Transformation
4.1.2 Mohr Stress Circle
4.1.3 Principal Stresses
4.2 Strains in 2-D Elements
4.2.1 Strain Transformation
4.2.2 Geometric Relationships
4.2.3 Mohr Strain Circle
4.2.4 Principle Strains
4.3 Reinforced Concrete 2-D Elements
4.3.1 Stress Condition and Crack Pattern in RC 2-D Elements
4.3.2 Fixed Angle Theory
4.3.3 Rotating Angle Theory
4.3.4 ‘Contribution of Concrete’ (Vc)
4.3.5 Mohr Stress Circles for RC Shear Elements
Rotating Angle Shear Theories
5.1 Stress Equilibrium of RC 2-D Elements
5.1.1 Transformation Type of Equilibrium Equations
5.1.2 First Type of Equilibrium Equations
5.1.3 Second Type of Equilibrium Equations
5.1.4 Equilibrium Equations in Terms of Double Angle
5.1.5 Example Problem 5.1 Using Equilibrium (Plasticity) Truss Model
5.2 Strain Compatibility of RC 2-D Elements
5.2.1 Transformation Type of Compatibility Equations
5.2.2 First Type of Compatibility Equations
5.2.3 Second Type of Compatibility Equations
5.2.4 Crack Control
5.3.5 Allowable Stress Design of RC 2-D Elements
5.4 Rotating Angle Softened Truss Model (RA-STM)
5.4.1 Basic Principles of RA-STM
5.4.2 Summary of Equations
5.4.3 Solution Algorithm
5.4.7 Failure Modes of RC 2-D Elements
6.1.1 Basic Principles of SMM
6.1.2 Research in RC 2-D Elements
6.1.3 Poisson Effect in Reinforced Concrete
6.1.4 Hsu/Zhu Ratios ν12 and ν21
6.1.5 Experimental Stress–Strain Curves
6.1.6 Softened Stress–Strain Relationship of Concrete in Compression
6.1.7 Softening Coefﬁcient ζ
6.1.8 Smeared Stress–Strain Relationship of Concrete in Tension
6.1.9 Smeared Stress–Strain Relationship of Mild Steel Bars in Concrete
6.1.10 Smeared Stress–Strain Relationship of Concrete in Shear
6.1.11 Solution Algorithm
6.1.12 Example Problem 6.1
6.2 Fixed Angle Softened Truss Model (FA-STM)
6.2.1 Basic Principles of FA-STM
6.2.2 Solution Algorithm
6.2.3 Example Problem 6.2
6.3 Cyclic Softened Membrane Model (CSMM)
6.3.1 Basic Principles of CSMM
6.3.2 Cyclic Stress–Strain Curves of Concrete
6.3.3 Cyclic Stress–Strain Curves of Mild Steel
6.3.4 Hsu/Zhu Ratios υTC and υCT
6.3.5 Solution Procedure
6.3.6 Hysteretic Loops
6.3.7 Mechanism of Pinching and Failure under Cyclic Shear
6.3.8 Eight Demonstration Panels
6.3.10 Shear Ductility
6.3.11 Shear Energy Dissipation
Torsion
7.1 Analysis of Torsion
7.1.1 Equilibrium Equations
7.1.2 Compatibility Equations
7.1.3 Constitutive Relationships of Concrete
7.1.4 Governing Equations for Torsion
7.1.5 Method of Solution
7.1.6 Example Problem 7.1
7.2 Design for Torsion
7.2.1 Analogy between Torsion and Bending
7.2.2 Various Deﬁnitions of Lever Arm Area, Ao
7.2.3 Thickness td of Shear Flow Zone for Design
7.2.4 Simpliﬁed Design Formula for td
7.2.5 Compatibility Torsion in Spandrel Beams
7.2.6 Minimum Longitudinal Torsional Steel
7.2.7 Design Examples 7.2
Beams in Shear
8.1 Plasticity Truss Model for Beam Analysis
8.1.1 Beams Subjected to Midspan Concentrated Load
8.1.2 Beams Subjected to Uniformly Distributed Load
8.2 Compatibility Truss Model for Beam Analysis
8.2.1 Analysis of Beams Subjected to Uniformly Distributed Load
8.2.2 Stirrup Forces and Triangular Shear Diagram
8.2.3 Longitudinal Web Steel Forces
8.2.4 Steel Stresses along a Diagonal Crack
8.3 Shear Design of Prestressed Concrete I-beams
8.3.1 Background Information
8.3.2 Prestressed Concrete I-Beam Tests at University of Houston
8.3.3 UH Shear Strength Equation
8.3.4 Maximum Shear Strength
8.3.5 Minimum Stirrup Requirement
8.3.6 Comparisons of Shear Design Methods with Tests
8.3.7 Shear Design Example
8.3.8 Three Shear Design Examples
Finite Element Modeling of Frames and Walls
9.1 Overview
9.1.1 Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
9.1.2 OpenSees – an Object-oriented FEA Framework
9.1.3 Material Models
9.1.4 FEA Formulations of 1-D and 2-D Models
9.2 Material Models for Concrete Structures
9.2.1 Material Models in OpenSees
9.2.2 Material Models Developed at UH
9.3 1-D Fiber Model for Frames
9.4 2-D CSMM Model for Walls
9.4.1 Coordinate Systems for Concrete Structures
9.4.2 Implementation
9.4.3 Analysis Procedures
9.5.1 Single Degree of Freedom versus Multiple Degrees of Freedom
9.5.2 A Three-degrees-of-freedom Building
9.5.3 Damping
10.1 RC Panels Under Static Load
10.2 Prestresed Concrete Beams Under Static Load
10.3.3 Mid-Rise Framed Shear Walls at NCREE
10.4 Post-tensioned Precast Bridge Columns under Reversed Cyclic Load
10.5 Framed Shear Walls under Shake Table Excitations
10.6 A Seven-story Wall Building under Shake Table Excitations
Appendix A
Index
P. 1
Unified Theory of Concrete Structures

# Unified Theory of Concrete Structures

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Unified Theory of Concrete Structures develops an integrated theory that encompasses the various stress states experienced by both RC & PC structures under the various loading conditions of bending, axial load, shear and torsion. Upon synthesis, the new rational theories replace the many empirical formulas currently in use for shear, torsion and membrane stress.

The unified theory is divided into six model components: a) the struts-and-ties model, b) the equilibrium (plasticity) truss model, c) the Bernoulli compatibility truss model, d) the Mohr compatibility truss model, e) the softened truss model, and f) the softened membrane model. Hsu presents the six models as rational tools for the solution of the four basic types of stress, focusing on the significance of their intrinsic consistencies and their inter-relationships. Because of its inherent rationality, this unified theory of reinforced concrete can serve as the basis for the formulation of a universal and international design code.

Includes an appendix and accompanying website hosting the authors’ finite element program SCS along with instructions and examples Offers comprehensive coverage of content ranging from fundamentals of flexure, shear and torsion all the way to non-linear finite element analysis and design of wall-type structures under earthquake loading. Authored by world-leading experts on torsion and shear
Unified Theory of Concrete Structures develops an integrated theory that encompasses the various stress states experienced by both RC & PC structures under the various loading conditions of bending, axial load, shear and torsion. Upon synthesis, the new rational theories replace the many empirical formulas currently in use for shear, torsion and membrane stress.

The unified theory is divided into six model components: a) the struts-and-ties model, b) the equilibrium (plasticity) truss model, c) the Bernoulli compatibility truss model, d) the Mohr compatibility truss model, e) the softened truss model, and f) the softened membrane model. Hsu presents the six models as rational tools for the solution of the four basic types of stress, focusing on the significance of their intrinsic consistencies and their inter-relationships. Because of its inherent rationality, this unified theory of reinforced concrete can serve as the basis for the formulation of a universal and international design code.

Includes an appendix and accompanying website hosting the authors’ finite element program SCS along with instructions and examples Offers comprehensive coverage of content ranging from fundamentals of flexure, shear and torsion all the way to non-linear finite element analysis and design of wall-type structures under earthquake loading. Authored by world-leading experts on torsion and shear

Publish date: Mar 16, 2010
Added to Scribd: Jun 16, 2013

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