Confirmed sunna fast: Those fasts which the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him andgive him peace) kept and encouraged others to keep. E.g., fasting on the 9th and 10th of Muharram, and the 9th of Dhul Hijja, etc.Recommended fast: All fasts besides fard, wajib, and sunna are mustahabb. E.g., fastingon Mondays and Thursdays.Disliked fast: Fasting only on the 9th or 10th of Muharram or fasting only on Fridays.Some scholars hold it permissible to fast on the 9th and 10th of Muharram sincedistinguishing our fast from that of the Jews no longer applies, as the Jews no longer faston those days.Impermissible fast: It is haram to fast on five days during the year. They are: `Eid al-Fitr,`Eid al-Adha, and three days after `Eid al-Adha.
THE INTENTION (Intention)
The intention of fasting is necessary. If a person stays away from all those things thatbreak one’s fast without an intention, the fast will not be valid.It is not necessary to express the intention verbally as intention simply means to intend.Thus, the firm determination of the heart will suffice. However, it is better to express theintention verbally also: Bi sawmi ghadin nawaytu (‘And I intend to fast tomorrow’)The time for intention lasts up to midday for specifically obligatory, specificallynecessary, sunna and recommended fasts. This is mid-way between the beginning of fajrtime to sunset (the beginning of maghrib time).The intention for non-specifically obligatory and non-specifically necessary fasts must bemade before the beginning of fajr time.[F: The time for intention starts from Maghrib time of the night before.]
DU`A AT THE TIME OF BREAKING FAST
Allahumma inni laka sumtu wa bika amantu wa `ala rizqika aftartu orAllahumma laka sumtu wa bika amantu wa `alayka tawakkaltu wa `ala rizqika aftartu(‘O Allah, I have fasted for You, believed in You, placed my trust in You, and broken myfast on your provision’)