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Sawm

Sawm

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Published by: Overyonder on May 01, 2009
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09/30/2012

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The Fiqh of Fasting
Answered by Sidi MujibThe Fiqh of FastingTa`limu’l-Haq chapter on Fasting (Sawm) taught by Shaykh Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf on Sunday, October 20th, 2002 and Sunday November 3rd, 2002. Notes in brackets [suchas (F: )] are from Faraz Rabbani.Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam.Fasting in the month of Ramadan is fard upon every Muslim, male and female, who issane and mature.Almighty Allah has promised great reward for those that fast, whilst severe punishment isin store for those who do not fast in the month of Ramadan.Fasting has many physical, moral and social benefits. However, Allah has made fastingcompulsory so that we become pious, God-fearing and God-conscious.Fasting in Islam means to stay away from eating, drinking and cohabitation from truedawn (subh sadiq, beginning of fajr time) to sunset with an intention of fasting.
TYPES OF FAST
 There are eight types of fasting. They are as follows:Specific obligatory (fard) fast: Fasting for the whole month of Ramadan once a year.Non-specific obligatory (fard) fast: The duty upon one to make up a fast missed in themonth of Ramadan with or without a valid reason.Specific necessary (wajib) fast: To vow to keep a fast on a specific day or date for thesake of Allah, upon the fulfillment of a wish or desire (nadhr)Non-specific necessary (wajib) fast: To vow or pledge to keep a fast without fixing anyday or date, upon the fulfillment of a wish (nadhr). Those fasts which are kept forbreaking one’s qasm (oath) also fall under this category.
 
Confirmed sunna fast: Those fasts which the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him andgive him peace) kept and encouraged others to keep. E.g., fasting on the 9th and 10th of Muharram, and the 9th of Dhul Hijja, etc.Recommended fast: All fasts besides fard, wajib, and sunna are mustahabb. E.g., fastingon Mondays and Thursdays.Disliked fast: Fasting only on the 9th or 10th of Muharram or fasting only on Fridays.Some scholars hold it permissible to fast on the 9th and 10th of Muharram sincedistinguishing our fast from that of the Jews no longer applies, as the Jews no longer faston those days.Impermissible fast: It is haram to fast on five days during the year. They are: `Eid al-Fitr,`Eid al-Adha, and three days after `Eid al-Adha.
THE INTENTION (Intention)
 The intention of fasting is necessary. If a person stays away from all those things thatbreak one’s fast without an intention, the fast will not be valid.It is not necessary to express the intention verbally as intention simply means to intend.Thus, the firm determination of the heart will suffice. However, it is better to express theintention verbally also: Bi sawmi ghadin nawaytu (‘And I intend to fast tomorrow’)The time for intention lasts up to midday for specifically obligatory, specificallynecessary, sunna and recommended fasts. This is mid-way between the beginning of fajrtime to sunset (the beginning of maghrib time).The intention for non-specifically obligatory and non-specifically necessary fasts must bemade before the beginning of fajr time.[F: The time for intention starts from Maghrib time of the night before.]
DU`A AT THE TIME OF BREAKING FAST
 Allahumma inni laka sumtu wa bika amantu wa `ala rizqika aftartu orAllahumma laka sumtu wa bika amantu wa `alayka tawakkaltu wa `ala rizqika aftartu(‘O Allah, I have fasted for You, believed in You, placed my trust in You, and broken myfast on your provision’)

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