Volume 10, Issue 2, Sep 2011
A systematic design methodology is followed to achievereliable and most suitable solution. It involves thefollowing steps.
Journals and patent research
Market study and user(GEMBA)survey
Concept generation and selection
Final concept refinement
Journal papers and patents explored here are relateddirectly or indirectly to the proposed area of work that isdesign of a
Citrus fruit juicer
. These papers are tosupport and enlighten the whole process of design in thespecific area.
Citrus Fruit Extraction Method
This article focusing on citrus juice extractionmethods, as extraction method is a major area to befocused to make a hygienic and efficient juicer.
In this method the fruit is cut into half and squeeze againstthe reamer to extract the juice. Juice can’t be fullyextracted from the citrus fruit .
In line method
In this method, machine has upper and lower cup. Thefruit is fed on to the lower cup and the upper cup movesdown and encloses the fruit for extraction. The upper cuphas finger like structure in order to prevent the fruit from bursting. Upper and lower knife cut the plug to separatethe peel from the inner flesh portion of the fruit. The upper cup starts exerting pressure on the fruit to move the inner flesh portion into the strainer via the bottom plug. Theorifice tube moves upward tends to press the inner portionof the fruit in the strainer tube. Due to the pressure the juice is extracted from the inner portion of the fruit .
Juice from citrus fruit can be extracted by twomethods. Citrus water and total citrus fruit method. Incitrus water, outer skin and white layer is removed whichresults in watery. As white layer is rich in vitamin P, thereis a huge nutrient loss in this method. In total citrus fruit,outer peel is removed and juice is extracted with whitelayer which results in thick and creamier juice. It requirescitrus juicer and can’t extract by conventional juicer .
Fig. 1 In line method 
Role of Extraction Method
Extraction method plays important role inmaintaining the nutrition content of the juice. To get fullnutrition benefits of juice it must be consumed soon after extracting from the fruit. Vitamin C [ascorbic acid] ismain constituent in citrus fruit and help in maintaining theshelf life of the juice. Ascorbic acid in citrus fruit isunstable and decomposes with heat, light, time andoxygen. After few hours fermentation starts and results in juice turns more acidic and stale taste. Pasteurization is thetechnique followed to increase the shelf life of the juice.
Street Vended Food
Consumption of food from street vendor isincreased in recent years in India and getting popular among educated and rich people. This is due to increase in population. Ensuring food safety is important factor for street vendor. Most of the illnesses are caused due tounhygienic food. Most of the unhygienic conditions aredue to uncovering the prepared food, improper wash area,as people wash their hands next to the cart area, open dust bin which attracts flies, cleaning of plates and glasses inunclean water and water used for preparing the food.Many people are aware of these issues but they consume because of hunger, thirst and economic status. Eventhough some vendor prepare under hygienic conditions,the food get contaminated due to poor handling of food.Availability of good water is main factor for maintaininghygienic condition. Creating awareness among publicregarding hygienic condition through media can increasethe awareness among public and vendors .
Ergonomic Aspects of Hand Wheel Turning
This article gives an overview of the ergonomicfactors need to be considered while operating hand wheel.