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Table Of Contents

Panta Rei: Everything Flows
1.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
1.2 WHAT LIES AHEAD?
1.3 HOW NATURE USES RD
1.3.1 Animate Systems
1.3.2 Inanimate Systems
1.4 RD IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
REFERENCES
Basic Ingredients: Diffusion
2.1 DIFFUSION EQUATION
2.2 SOLVING DIFFUSION EQUATIONS
2.2.1 Separation of Variables
2.2.2 Laplace Transforms
Example 2.1 Unsteady Diffusion in an Infinite Tube
2.3 THE USE OF SYMMETRYAND SUPERPOSITION
Example 2.2 Unsteady Diffusion in a Finite Tube
2.4 CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES
Example 2.3 Is Diffusion Good for Drug Delivery?
2.5 ADVANCED TOPICS
Chemical Reactions
3.1 REACTIONS AND RATES
Example 3.1 More Than Meets the Eye: Nonapparent Reaction
3.2 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
3.3 IONIC REACTIONS AND SOLUBILITY PRODUCTS
3.5 OSCILLATING REACTIONS
3.6 REACTIONS IN GELS
and the Methods of Solving
4.1 GENERAL FORM OF REACTION–DIFFUSION
4.3 SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION
4.3.1 Finite Difference Methods
Example 4.1 How Diffusion Betrayed the Minotaur
4.3.2 Finite Element Methods
Example 4.2 The Origins of the Galerkin Finite Element Scheme
4.4 TEMPORAL DISCRETIZATION AND INTEGRATION
4.4.1 Case 1: tRxn !tDiff
4.4.1.3 Crank–Nicholson method
4.4.2 Case 2: tRxn (tDiff
4.4.2.1 Operator splitting method
4.4.2.2 Method of lines
4.4.3 Dealing with Precipitation Reactions
4.6 MESOSCOPIC MODELS
5.1 CHOICE OF GELS
5.2 FABRICATION
5A.1 PDMS Molding
5A.2 Agarose Molding
APPENDIX 5A: PRACTICAL GUIDE TO MAKING AGAROSE STAMPS 101
FABRICATING ARRAYS OF MICROLENSES BY RD AND WETS 105
Example 6.1 A Closer Look at Gel Wetting
INTERMEZZO: SOME THOUGHTS ON RATIONAL DESIGN 109
GAS MODELING
Example 6.2 Is Reaction Diffusion Time-Reversible?
Example 6.3 Optimization of Lens Shape Using a Monte
OF MULTILEVEL STRUCTURES
6.6 MICROFABRICATION OF MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES
6.7 SHORT SUMMARY
with Periodic Precipitation
7.1 PERIODIC PRECIPITATION
7.2 PHENOMENOLOGY OF PERIODIC PRECIPITATION
7.3 GOVERNING EQUATIONS
Example 7.1 Periodic Precipitation via Spinodal Decomposition
7.4 MICROSCOPIC PP PATTERNS IN TWO DIMENSIONS
MICROSCOPIC PP PATTERNS IN TWO DIMENSIONS 137
7.4.3 Degree of Gel Crosslinking
Example 7.2 Wave Optics and Periodic Precipitation41
7.5 TWO-DIMENSIONAL PATTERNS FOR DIFFRACTIVE
TWO-DIMENSIONAL PATTERNS FOR DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS 145
Example 7.3 Calculating Diffraction Patterns
7.7 TOWARD THE APPLICATIONS OF BUCKLED
TOWARD THE APPLICATIONS OF BUCKLED SURFACES 155
7.8 PARALLEL REACTIONS AND THE NANOSCALE
8.1 DEPOSITION OF METAL FOILS AT GEL INTERFACES
8.1.1 RD in the Plating Solution: Film Topography
8.1.2 RD in Gel Substrates: Film Roughness
Example 8.1 Stokes–Einstein Equation
8.2 CUTTING INTO HARD SOLIDS WITH SOFT GELS
8.2.1 Etching Equations
8.2.1.1 Gold etching
Semiconductors and Crystals19
8.2.4 Imprinting Functional Architectures into Glass
8.3 THE TAKE-HOME MESSAGE
USING LOW-SYMMETRY NETWORKS
9.3 DETECTING MOLECULAR MONOLAYERS
9.4 SENSING CHEMICAL ‘FOOD’
Example 9.1 Patterning an Excitable BZ Medium using WETS
9.4.1 Oscillatory Kinetics
9.4.2 Diffusive Coupling
9.4.3 Wave Emission and Mode Switching
AND MEASUREMENTS
Example 9.2 Calculating Binding Constants from RD Profiles
10.1 FABRICATION INSIDE POROUS PARTICLES
10.1.1 Making Spheres Inside of Cubes
10.1.2 Modeling of 3D RD
Example 10.1 Transforming Surface Rates into Apparent
10.1.3 Fabrication Inside of Complex-Shape Particles
10.1.4 ‘Remote’ Exchange of the Cores
10.1.5 Self-Assembly of Open-Lattice Crystals
Appendix A: Nature’s Art
Index
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Chemistry in Motion: Reaction-Diffusion Systems for Micro- and Nanotechnology

Chemistry in Motion: Reaction-Diffusion Systems for Micro- and Nanotechnology

Ratings: (0)|Views: 446|Likes:
Published by Wiley
Change and motion define and constantly reshape the world around us, on scales from the molecular to the global. In particular, the subtle interplay between chemical reactions and molecular transport gives rise to an astounding richness of natural phenomena, and often manifests itself in the emergence of intricate spatial or temporal patterns. The underlying theme of this book is that by “setting chemistry in motion” in a proper way, it is not only possible to discover a variety of new phenomena, in which chemical reactions are coupled with diffusion, but also to build micro-/nanoarchitectures and systems of practical importance. Although reaction and diffusion (RD) processes are essential for the functioning of biological systems, there have been only a few examples of their application in modern micro- and nanotechnology. Part of the problem has been that RD phenomena are hard to bring under experimental control, especially when the system’s dimensions are small. Ultimately this book will guide the reader through all the aspects of these systems – from understanding the basics to practical hints and then to applications and interpretation of results.

Topics covered include:

An overview and outlook of both biological and man-made reaction-diffusion systems. The fundamentals and mathematics of diffusion and chemical reactions. Reaction-diffusion equations and the methods of solving them. Spatial control of reaction-diffusion at small scales. Micro- and nanofabrication by reaction-diffusion. Chemical clocks and periodic precipitation structures. Reaction-diffusion in soft materials and at solid interfaces. Microstructuring of solids using RD. Reaction-diffusion for chemical amplification and sensing. RD in three dimensions and at the nanoscale, including nanosynthesis.

This book is aimed at all those who are interested in chemical processes at small scales, especially physical chemists, chemical engineers, and material scientists. The book can also be used for one-semester, graduate elective courses in chemical engineering, materials science, or chemistry classes.

Change and motion define and constantly reshape the world around us, on scales from the molecular to the global. In particular, the subtle interplay between chemical reactions and molecular transport gives rise to an astounding richness of natural phenomena, and often manifests itself in the emergence of intricate spatial or temporal patterns. The underlying theme of this book is that by “setting chemistry in motion” in a proper way, it is not only possible to discover a variety of new phenomena, in which chemical reactions are coupled with diffusion, but also to build micro-/nanoarchitectures and systems of practical importance. Although reaction and diffusion (RD) processes are essential for the functioning of biological systems, there have been only a few examples of their application in modern micro- and nanotechnology. Part of the problem has been that RD phenomena are hard to bring under experimental control, especially when the system’s dimensions are small. Ultimately this book will guide the reader through all the aspects of these systems – from understanding the basics to practical hints and then to applications and interpretation of results.

Topics covered include:

An overview and outlook of both biological and man-made reaction-diffusion systems. The fundamentals and mathematics of diffusion and chemical reactions. Reaction-diffusion equations and the methods of solving them. Spatial control of reaction-diffusion at small scales. Micro- and nanofabrication by reaction-diffusion. Chemical clocks and periodic precipitation structures. Reaction-diffusion in soft materials and at solid interfaces. Microstructuring of solids using RD. Reaction-diffusion for chemical amplification and sensing. RD in three dimensions and at the nanoscale, including nanosynthesis.

This book is aimed at all those who are interested in chemical processes at small scales, especially physical chemists, chemical engineers, and material scientists. The book can also be used for one-semester, graduate elective courses in chemical engineering, materials science, or chemistry classes.

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Publish date: Apr 20, 2009
Added to Scribd: Jun 16, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780470741634
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