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Educational Systems in Harem نگرشي بر سيستم آموزشي در حرمسرا از زهرا جمالي قطلو بر اساس روياي گذر از مرزهاي حرمسرانوشته فاطيما مرنيسي

Educational Systems in Harem نگرشي بر سيستم آموزشي در حرمسرا از زهرا جمالي قطلو بر اساس روياي گذر از مرزهاي حرمسرانوشته فاطيما مرنيسي

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Published by azbm_mir
نگرشي بر سيستم آموزشي در حرمسرا از زهرا جمالي قطلو بر اساس روياي گذر از مرزهاي حرمسرانوشته فاطيما مرنيسي
Educational Systems in Harem
an analysis paper by Zahra jamali Ghotlou
نگرشي بر سيستم آموزشي در حرمسرا از زهرا جمالي قطلو بر اساس روياي گذر از مرزهاي حرمسرانوشته فاطيما مرنيسي
Educational Systems in Harem
an analysis paper by Zahra jamali Ghotlou

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: azbm_mir on May 01, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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Educational Systems in Harem
As conveyed by Fatima Mernissi’s
 Dream of 
Trespass, the harem is prisonlike place in which ,men are rulers and women are under strict control.Typically women were nottreted equally and did not benifit from the same educational system. The private and publicspheres were good venues of differentiation. Men were always worried about any attack to theinstitution of harem life.Men Like Grandfather Tazi,Uncle Ali Cuasin Zin, and Jawad whowere free to go out of the harem had diffrent opinions about the life in the harem. Fatima’sfather says : “where will the troubled women go?”(16). On the other hand, women who wereliving within the harem, like Lalla Memi, Lalla Thor, Habiba, Chama, LallaTam, Tamou, andGrandmother Yasemina had differnt opinions. “Mother hated communal harem life.” SaidFatima(6). Both traditional and modern views were supported by different family membersliving in the harems.There were different generations of women who were open minded and against theharem system yet some were satisfied with it. There was modern and traditional classes of women behind the closed doors of the harem with a common problem that had “no name”. This problem had affected these women’s lives very seriously. However, they could only solve their  problem if they knew the causes, and one of the main reasons they got such great problems wastheir illiteracy and lack of access to a traditional educational system. There was no widespread1
 modern educational system for women in Morocco at the time of Merissa’s
Dreams of Ttrespass
,They could attend Koran courses or a French school only with their father’s permission. Somegirls were allowed to have secular educations in some cities, but older women did not havechance to obtain that kind of education. Those who were not able to achieve their goal would tryto ensure their daughters had better educational opportunities.The male members of the family like grandfathers, uncles, fathers, brothers, andmale cousins tended to support limited education for women. Their aim of keeping women under strict controls in harems might have two reasons: first, they might have been afraid of women‘s power, second, they felt empowered when they limited women’s freedom. Men knew thatknowledge is power for everybody especially for women, and only comes through a realeducation, not by imitating or blindly following traditional beliefs in traditional Koranic schools.They knew that teachers like Lalla Tam, who was the headmistress of the Koranic school whereFatima was sent, was teaching lessons like: “Education is to know the
the sacredfrontiers.” (3) Men also knew that powerful women would never accept sharing their husbands,so polygamy would come to an end; Hududs were established to keep women within limits.Being educated or not had no difference for most women in the harem. Cousin Chamawas a good example because although she was literate, she was not allowed to listen to the radioor read newspapers. To resist presented many theatrical plays to the women in the harem. Chamawas seventeen and always talked about “women’s invisible wings” and taught Fatima that her wings would develop when she was older. Perhaps she was talking about the knowledge whichshe would gain through education. (22) Aunt Habiba’s tales in the other hand made Fatima “longto become an adult and an expert storyteller myself.”(19) Thus Fatima was able to treasure her French education all the more because she saw the women around her being deprived of basicknowledge.
The men of the harem decided that, the children within the harem would be allowed to go2to schools just to learn religion. Letting little girls like Fatima go to Koranic lessons would benefit the patriarchy because it would fill their raw brains with dominant ideas about domesticlife. This would allow men to capture, and keep women in harems like properties, withoutresistance or disobedience from women. Fatima was discontent with this system and desired amodern secular education that would allow her to learn the subjects the boys were learning.Fatima was taught about “Qaida” and how it was man made against women. The women taughther that these rules had no warning signs and that they were invisible, but would harm her if shedisobeyed. Grandmother Yasmina, explained Fatima that women do not know why they aredeprived of everything, even education. “Maybe the rules are ruthless because they are notwomen made.”(63) Fatima would be the first generation to challenge these boundaries andtrespass into the modern world. Fatima’s question of whether she would be a happy woman shesaid “of course you would be happy!’…you would be a modern educated lady …you will learnforeign languages, have a passport, and devour books ….you will certainly be better off than your mother.” (64)Although men limited women, women like Lalla, the teacher, with their religious beliefshad major effects on misguiding young female students who were studying at their schools, likeFatima who learned that, “To be a Muslim was to respect the Hudud.” (3) Fathers let their littledaughters attend such schools to create a truly obedient generation which would stand behind thefrontiers of authority. Unlike them, Yasmina told Fatima not to “accept inequality, for it was notlogical.”(26)The older woman, Grandmother Lalla Mani and Chama’s mother Lalla Radia were proharem and supported traditional education. The younger generation resisted and disobeyed.

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