CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMbyRuby Ruth RocesI.Anatomy and physiology review
The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that lies within the pericardium in themiddle mediastinum. It is pyramidal in shape, with the apex directed downward,forward and to the left, usually lying in the 5
intercostals space left mid-clavicular line. It is divided into four chambers by an vertical septa. It iscomposed of 3 layers; the outer epicardium, middle myocardium and inner endocardium.The 4 chamber of the heart are the right atium, right ventricle, left atrium andleft ventricle. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the peripheral organs and distributes it to the lungs via pulmonary arteries for oxygenation. The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungsthrough the pulmonary veins and distributes it to the peripheral organs through theaorta.There are 4 valves in the heart which permits blood flow in 1 direction. Thesevalves can be classified into atrioventricular and semilunar valves. There are 2 AVvalves; the tricuspid so named because of it has 3 cusps, divides the Right atriumfrom the Right ventricle. The bicuspid or mitral valve on the other hand dividesthe left atrium from the left ventricle. The semilunar valves- the pulmonic andaortic valves are named according to the vessels they’re located in.The blood supply of the heart is given by the right and left main coronaryarteries.