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Table Of Contents

Introduction
Polymer Gel Actuators: Fundamentals
1.1 Introduction and Historical Overview
1.2 Properties of Gels
1.2.1 Biological Gels
1.2.2 Mechanical Properties of Simple, Single-Phase Gels
1.2.3 Elastic Moduli
1.2.4 Strength
1.2.5 Multi-Phase Gels
1.2.6 Double Network Gels
1.2.7 Transport Properties
1.2.8 Drying
1.3 Chemical and Physical Formation of Gels
1.4 Actuation Methods
1.4.1 Thermally Driven Gel Actuators
1.4.2 Chemically Driven Gel Actuators
1.4.3 Gels Driven by Oscillating Reactions
1.4.4 Light Actuated Gels
1.4.5 Electrically Driven Gel Actuators
1.4.6 Electro- and Magneto-Rheological Composites
1.4.7 LC Elastomers
1.5 Performance of Gels as Actuators
1.6 Applications of Electroactive Gels
1.6.1 Gel Valves and Pumps
1.6.2 Light Modulators
1.6.3 Gel Drug Delivery
1.6.4 Gel Sensors
1.7 Conclusions
References
2.5 Bio-Responsive Chemical Hydrogels
2.5.3 Actuation Based on Conformational Changes
2.6 Bio-Responsive Physical Hydrogels
2.6.1 Enzyme-Responsive Physical Hydrogels
2.7 Electroactive Chemical Hydrogels
2.8 Conclusion
Stimuli-Responsive and ‘Active’ Polymers in Drug Delivery
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Drug Delivery: Examples, Challenges and Opportunities
3.2.1 Oral Drug Delivery Systems
3.2.2 Parenteral Drug Delivery
3.2.3 Topical and Transdermal Drug Delivery
3.2.5 Peptides and Proteins
3.2.6 Nucleic Acids
3.2.7 Cell Delivery
Release Systems
3.3.1 Technologies for Controlled Drug Release
3.3.2 Polymer–Drug Conjugates
3.3.3 Polymer–Protein Conjugates
3.3.4 Polymer–Nucleic Acid Conjugates
3.3.5 Polymer–Nucleic Acid Complexes
3.4 Responsive or ‘Smart’ Polymers in Drug Delivery
3.4.1 Soluble Smart Polymers
3.4.2 Responsive Polymer–Drug Conjugates
3.4.3 Responsive Polymer–Protein Conjugates
3.4.4 Responsive Polymers for DNA Delivery
3.6 Conclusions and Future Outlook
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Materials and Methods
4.3 Hydrogel Actuator
4.3.1 Thermo-Mechanical Gel Dynamics
4.3.2 Experimental Results
4.4 Pump Functioning
4.5 Conclusion
IPMC Actuators: Fundamentals
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Fabrication
5.2.1 Ionic Polymer
5.2.2 Plating Methods
5.3 Measurement
5.4 Performance of the IPMC Actuator
5.5 Model
5.6 Recent Developments
5.7 Conclusion
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fabrication of the IPMC Device
6.3 Applications to the Microcatheter
6.4 Other Applications
6.4.1 Sheet-Type Braille Display
6.4.2 Underwater Microrobot
6.4.3 Linear Actuators for a Biped Walking Robot
6.5 Conclusions
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Heart Failure
7.3 Background of IPMNCs
7.4 Three-Dimensional Fabrication of IPMNCs
7.5 Electrically-Induced Robotic Actuation
7.6 Distributed Nanosensing and Transduction
7.7 Modeling and Simulation
7.8 Application of IPMNCs to Heart Compression and Assist in General
7.9 Manufacturing Thick IPMNC Fingers
7.10 Conclusions
8.1 Introduction
8.2 IPMC Actuators as a Tactile Stimulator
8.3 Wearable Tactile Display
8.4 Selective Stimulation Method for Tactile Synthesis
8.5 Texture Synthesis Method
8.6 Display Method for Pressure Sensation
8.6.1 Method
8.6.2 Evaluation
8.7 Display Method for Roughness Sensation
8.7.1 Method
8.7.2 Evaluation
8.8 Display Method for Friction Sensation
8.9 Synthesis of Total Textural Feeling
8.9.1 Method
8.9.2 Experiments
8.10 Conclusions
IPMC Assisted Infusion Micropumps
9.1 Introduction
2 Background of IPMCs
9.3 Miniature Disposable Infusion IPMC Micropumps
9.3.1 Configuration of the IPMC Infusion Pump
9.3.2 The Control System
9.3.3 Performance Testing
9.4 Modelling for IPMC Micropumps
9.4.1 Equivalent Bimorph Beam Model for IPMC Actuators
9.4.2 IPMC Diaphragm
9.5 Conclusions
Conjugated Polymer Actuators: Fundamentals
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Molecular Mechanisms of Actuation in ICPs
10.3 Comparison of Actuation Performance in Various ICPs
10.4 Electrochemistry of ICPs
10.5.1 Effect of the Dopant Ion
10.5.2 Effect of Solvent
10.5.3 Charge Transfer Processes
10.5.4 Effect of Porosity/Morphology
10.6 Mechanical System Response
10.7 Device Design and Optimization
10.7.2 Design of a Swimming Device
10.7.3 Device Testing
10.8 Future Prospects
Steerable Catheters
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Catheters: History and Current Applications
11.3 Catheter Design Challenges
11.3.1 Biocompatibility
11.3.2 Small Size
11.3.3 Low Cost
11.3.4 Structural Rigidity
11.4 Active Steerable Catheters
11.4.1 Non-EAP Based Steerable Catheters
11.4.2 EAP Based Steerable Catheters
11.4.3 Conjugated Polymer Based Steerable Catheters
11.5 Discussion and Conclusion
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Actuator Background
12.3 Microfabrication
12.4 Single Hinge Bilayer Devices: Flaps and Lids
12.4.1 Bilayer Actuators
12.4.2 Drug Delivery
12.4.3 Cell Manipulation
12.4.4 Cell-Based Sensors
12.5 Multi-Bilayer Devices: Positioning Tools
12.5.1 Microtools
12.5.2 Microrobot
12.6 Swelling Film Devices: Valves
13.3 Mechanical Analysis of Actuators Operating Against Springs
13.4 Polypyrrole Actuators for Electronic Braille Pins
13.5 Other Polymer Actuation Systems for Electronic Braille Pins
13.6 Summary
Acknowledgements
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Nanostructured Conducting Polymers
14.2.1 Fabrication
14.2.2 Biomedical Application
14.3.1 Electrospinning
14.3.3 Electrochemical Deposition of PEDOT Nanotubes
14.3.4 Controlled Drug Delivery from PEDOT Nanotubes
14.4 Conclusions
Integrated Oral Drug Delivery System with Valve Based on Polypyrrole
15.1 Introduction
15.2 System Concept
15.3 Osmotic Pressure Pump
15.3.1 Valve Closed
15.3.2 Valve Open
15.4 Polypyrrole in Actuator Applications
15.4.1 Why PPy in the Intellidrug System
15.4.2 Actuation of PPy
15.5 Valve Concepts Evaluated in the Course of the IntelliDrug Project
15.5.1 Wafer-Level Fabricated Membrane Valve
15.5.2 Micro-Assembled Membrane Valve
15.6 Total Assembly and Clinical Testing of the IntelliDrug System
Acknowledgement
Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Polymer Actuators: Fundamentals
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Fundamentals of Electromechanical Materials
16.2.1 Piezoelectric Effect
16.2.2 Electrostrictive Effect
16.2.3 Other Effects
16.3 Material Properties Related to Electromechanical Applications
16.3.1 Electromechanical Coupling Factor (k)
16.3.2 Elastic Response
16.3.3 Frequency and Temperature Responses
16.4 Typical Electromechanical Polymers and Their Properties
16.4.1 Piezoelectric Polymers
16.4.2 Electrostrictive Polymers
16.4.3 Maxwell Stress Effect Based Polymers
16.4.4 Practical Considerations
16.5 Conclusions
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Coronary Imaging Needs
17.2.1 Vulnerable Plaques
17.2.2 Stent Thrombosis
17.3 High Resolution Ultrasonic Transducers
17.3.1 Polymer Transducers
17.4 Fabrication Techniques
17.5 Testing Methods
17.6 Results
17.7 Conclusion
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Piezoelectricity of Polymer Film and Fiber
18.4 Piezoelectric Motion of Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) Fiber
Using Piezoelectric Polymer Fiber
18.5.1 Preliminary Demonstration
18.6 Summary
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Needle Hydrophone Design
19.3 Spot Poled Membrane Hydrophone Design
19.4 Application to Diagnostic Ultrasound
19.5 Application to Therapeutic Ultrasound
19.6 Conclusion
Dielectric Elastomer Actuators: Fundamentals
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Basic Principle of Operation
20.3 Dielectric Elastomer Materials
20.4 Transducer Designs and Configurations
20.5 Operational Considerations
21.3 Mechanical Stimulation Using Thickness-Mode Actuation
21.4 Implantable Artificial Diaphragm Muscle
21.5 Implantable Artificial Facial Muscles
21.6 Limb Prosthetics and Orthotics
21.7 Mechanical Actuation for ‘Active’ Cell Culture Assays
21.8 Conclusions
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Prostate Cancer Therapy
22.2.1 Prostate Cancer Detection
22.2.2 Prostate Cancer Treatment
22.2.3 Needle Placement in MRI Systems
22.3.1 Design Requirements
22.3.2 Manipulator Concept
22.3.3 Manipulator Analytical Model
22.4 Results
22.4.1 Analytical Results
22.4.2 Experimental Results
22.5 Conclusions
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Fundamentals of Actuation Principle
23.3 Design of Tactile Display Device
23.4 Braille Display System
23.4.1 Fabrication
23.4.2 System Outline
23.4.3 Experiments
23.5 Advanced Applications
23.5.1 Wearable Tactile Display System
23.5.2 Virtual Reality Tactile Display
23.6 Conclusions
Dynamic Splint-Like Hand Orthosis for Finger Rehabilitation
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Passive Dynamic Hand Splints: State of the Art
24.3 Active Dynamic Hand Splints: State of the Art
Elastomer Actuators
24.5 Splint Mechanics
24.6 Dimensioning of the Actuators
24.7 Prototype Splint
24.8 Performance of the Prototype Splint
24.10 Conclusions
Index
P. 1
Biomedical Applications of Electroactive Polymer Actuators

Biomedical Applications of Electroactive Polymer Actuators

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Published by Wiley
Giving fundamental information on one of the most promising families of smart materials, electroactive polymers (EAP) this exciting new titles focuses on the several biomedical applications made possible by these types of materials and their related actuation technologies. Each chapter provides a description of the specific EAP material and device configuration used, material processing, device assembling and testing, along with a description of the biomedical application.

Edited by well-respected academics in the field of electroactive polymers with contributions from renowned international experts, this is an excellent resource for industrial and academic research scientists, engineers, technicians and graduate students working with polymer actuators or in the fields of polymer science.

 

Giving fundamental information on one of the most promising families of smart materials, electroactive polymers (EAP) this exciting new titles focuses on the several biomedical applications made possible by these types of materials and their related actuation technologies. Each chapter provides a description of the specific EAP material and device configuration used, material processing, device assembling and testing, along with a description of the biomedical application.

Edited by well-respected academics in the field of electroactive polymers with contributions from renowned international experts, this is an excellent resource for industrial and academic research scientists, engineers, technicians and graduate students working with polymer actuators or in the fields of polymer science.

 

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Publish date: Apr 13, 2009
Added to Scribd: Jun 16, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780470744680
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