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Satsuma mandarin Citrus Tree Care for Pests

Satsuma mandarin Citrus Tree Care for Pests

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Published by aPatriot4623
Information on the care of the Satsuma mandarin Citrus tree, pests,how to eliminate white flys,Purple scale,Glover scale, Leaffooted bug (western) and other pests which attack citrus trees.
Information on the care of the Satsuma mandarin Citrus tree, pests,how to eliminate white flys,Purple scale,Glover scale, Leaffooted bug (western) and other pests which attack citrus trees.

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Published by: aPatriot4623 on May 01, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Crop Profile for Satsuma Mandarin in Alabama
Prepared August 2007
Production Facts
Satsuma mandarin (
Citrus unshiu
Marc.) has been grown for over a century alongthe Gulf Coast in Alabama and neighboring states (English and Turnipseed, 1940), butgrowth and expansion of the industry has been hampered by periodic freezes, which untilrecently, have been severely devastating to the crop (Winberg, 1948; Campbell et al.,2004). Since the early 1990s, there has been an increase in the production of Satsumamandarin in southern Alabama. Renewed interest in Satsuma production by Alabamagrowers is fueled by recent availability of new cold-hardy rootstocks coupled withimproved methods for tree protection from temperature variations that occur in theregion. Strong industry and state support are also promoting industry growth with mucheffort being made to develop new markets (Campbell et al., 2004).Currently, Satsuma mandarin is a minor citrus crop in the U.S. producedcommercially in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi andTexas. California has the highest state production of Satsumas with approximately 3,000acres planted, and Louisiana is second with about 300 acres (Boudreaux and Vaughn,2006). Alabama is the third leading state for Satsuma production in the U.S. with over100 acres. Twenty-five percent of Alabama’s acreage is presently non-bearing trees thatare one to two years old. An additional twenty-five percent of the planted acreage is fromthree to six years old, and are increasing in annual production. The remaining 50% ismature, bearing citrus. The USDA currently has no production statistics for Satsumas inAlabama. Based on acreage of mature trees in Alabama and production studies,Alabama’s current level of production should be from 1.4 to 1.8 million pounds, andcould increase to twice that level in three to four years.The Satsuma mandarins grown in Alabama are marketed entirely for freshconsumption. The public school system in Alabama is a major market for Satsumas;about one-third of the local Satsuma mandarin crop has been sold annually to theAlabama public school system since 2003. Growers also market fruit to produce brokersand to fresh produce market vendors. A significant percentage of the Satsumas grown inAlabama are direct marketed to consumers at the farm gate. Wholesale prices range from$0.40 to $0.55/lb, and retail prices range from $0.55 to $0.90/lb. Cash value of Satsumasin Alabama is approximately $1.0M annually based on current production level.
Production Regions
In Alabama, Satsuma is grown
mainly in the two coastal counties (Mobile andBaldwin counties) that surround Mobile Bay with a few small growers scattered in thesouthern part of the state.
An informal grower questionnaire/survey conducted inNovember 2005 revealed that Alabama had approximately 7,000 trees in the1
Baldwin/Mobile county area in 13 orchards, representing approximately 25.3 hectares(ha). Respondents also indicated that another 10.1 ha were planned for planting in 2006.Orchard size among this group of growers ranged from 100 to 2,000 trees, and 8 of the 13orchards had less than 300 trees. Alabama also has approximately 500 trees in threeorchards in Escambia county; 300 trees in three orchards in Houston county (nearDothan, AL), and 175 trees in 3 orchards north of Montgomery, AL, which areconsidered “high tunnel” greenhouse production.Trees ranged in age from 1 to 22 years old in the orchards located in Baldwin andMobile counties, where small numbers of trees survived the winter 1983-84 freeze, butmost were planted after the winter 1989-1990 freeze. All of the plantings described in thesurvey that were in other counties were six years old or younger.Satsumas in Alabama are generally propagated on rootstocks by nurseries or bythe growers themselves. Trifoliate orange (
Poncirus trifoliata
) is the most commonrootstock in Alabama. Trifoliate orange prefers acidic to slightly acidic soils in the rangeof 4.5 to 6.5. This pH range is readily found among the soils of southern Alabama, inboth forest and cropland sites. Several cultivars of trifoliate orange are used including“Rubidoux” and the more dwarfing “Flying Dragon”. Both forms are used in all of thecultural production methods discussed in this profile. Another rootstock used in Alabamais “Swingle citrumelo”, which is also widely adaptable to soils, including the soilconditions found in Alabama. Satsumas are usually planted on upland sites with good airdrainage in order to reduce the incidence of cold air settling or “frost pockets”. Oftengrowers will seek sites that have a wooded area on the north side of the planting to serveas a windbreak and cold air buffer during advective freeze events. Fertilizer rates forSatsumas on Alabama soils are typical of other commercial citrus production regions,such as Florida and Louisiana, and many soils used for production maintain goodfertility. Dooryard citrus producers on the extreme coastal areas often have greaterfertility requirements, since soils in those locations may be very sandy.
Cultural Practices
Three different methods of Satsuma mandarin culture are employed in the Gulf Coast region. The foremost method is the “irrigated grove (orchard)”, with irrigationdesigned and installed principally for orchard freeze protection. Trees in this method areusually planted 4.6-6 m within rows and 6-7.6 m between rows, giving a tree density of 269 to 287 trees/ha. Little pruning is done with this method, other than “skirting”(removal of low limbs to facilitate herbicide application) and heading back of theuppermost portion of the canopy every third or fourth year to limit overall height andfacilitate hand harvesting of all of the fruit from the ground. The water volumerecommended per tree at planting is 45 l/hr, which is adequate for freeze protection forthe first four years of growth and production. After the fourth growing season, either asecond sprinkler is added for each tree and placed within the established canopy having avolume equal to or greater than the first. Alternatively, the original sprinkler may beplaced within the canopy, and the water volume increased to 90 l/hr (Nesbitt et al., 2000).The second method of culture is the “interplanted grove (orchard)”, whereinSatsuma mandarin trees are interplanted with pine trees, either Loblolly Pine (
) or Slash Pine (
Pinus elliottii
) to reduce frost injury during the winter season. Thismethod of culture was employed by growers in the region prior to the advent of irrigationtechnology and is still used today on a limited scale on sites where water is limiting. Treespacing in interplanted orchards is typically closer than in irrigated orchards with in-rowspacing of 3-4.3 m and between-row spacing of 6 m, giving a tree density of 359 to 384trees/ha. Every third tree in each row of trees is a pine tree and alternating rows havepines in alternating positions. When co-planted at the same time, the pine trees offer littlefrost protection to the Satsumas during the first 4-6 years of growth and development,and then provide increased frost protection with each year of canopy growth of the over-story species.The third method of culture for Satsuma mandarins in Alabama is “high tunnelgreenhouse” production, with trees permanently planted in greenhouses that are coveredin the months of December to April with a single-layer of white-colored, 4-mil or 6-milpolyethylene plastic. The structures themselves vary in width, length, and height, andplanting arrangement varies from double-row houses with a spacing of 1.8 m in-row and3.6 m between rows to single-row houses with trees spaced 1.8-2.4 m apart.Supplemental heat is provided by typical greenhouse heaters, water stored in black-colored drums, or with microsprinklers. Trees grown at present in high tunnels are young(less than 6 years old), and pruning requirements, potential for overcrowding and yieldpotential are still unknown.
 The original Satsuma mandarin variety that was introduced to the U.S. from Japanin the late 1800’s is ‘Owari’, a variety that reaches desirable eating quality in earlyNovember in south Alabama (Ebel et al., 2004). Owari is still the predominant variety of Satsumas in the region today, accounting for 80-90% of the orchard variety composition.‘Armstrong Early’ is a variety of unknown origin that ripens 30-40 days earlier thanOwari, and has thin peel and compact growth habit. Armstrong Early has been grown forover two decades on a limited scale due to inconsistent internal fruit quality. Threerecently-introduced varieties: ‘Brown’s Select’ (Bourgeois et al., 1995), a mid-seasonselection; ‘Early St. Ann’ (Bourgeois et al., 2002a), an early variety; and ‘L.A. Early’(Bourgeois et al., 2002b), an early variety have garnered interest among growers inAlabama and are being planted with Owari in new plantings, in order to extend theharvest period. Varieties from China and Japan, such as ‘Xie Shan’, ‘Miyagawa Wase’,and ‘Okitsu Wase’, have only recently been introduced to this region and are under studyin variety trials. It is unknown at present whether any of these early ripening varieties canconsistently bear fruit with acceptable internal quality in this region.Very few other citrus crops are grown Alabama. While ‘Washington’ naveloranges are produced for commercial trade in south Louisiana, no navels or sweetoranges are grown commercially in Alabama. A wide array of citrus may be found inhome landscapes in this region, but the only varieties planted in high enough numbers forcommercial potential include ‘Meyer’ lemon x sweet orange, ‘Meiwa’ sweet kumquat(
Fortunella crassifolia
), and ‘Nagami’ sour kumquat (
Fortunella margarita

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