were taken as truth received. Edward R. Murrow <ahref=""http://stream.state.gov/streamvol/journals/blackout.mp3"">whose voice</a> came torepresent the American effort in WWII in Europe on radio and broadcasters like Walter Cronkite who moved from radio to television, wielded great influence. These elite journalistsmade the news for the public. When Walter Cronkite, ranked in surveys in the 1970s and 80sas the "most trusted man in America," ended his news broadcasts with the sign-off line, "Andthat’s the way it is..." most people believed it.Dewey held that news is conversation that leads to civic consensus, but there was no mediumin the 1920s that supported many-to-many, interactive communication. Face-to-face town-hallmeetings of the 19th century couldn't scale up as the public needed to confront increasinglycomplex issues and as the population of citizens and voters increased. Citizens had no timenor opportunity to gather in public on a daily basis. The one-to-many, not many-to-many,nature of available mass media meant that access was expensive, closed, and dominated bythose who had the money to pay for air-time.Let's click ahead to the early 21st century. The Internet, and the penetration of high-speedbroadband, provide many-to-many communication media, including Internet and textmessaging. "Being connected" in the developed world today allows inexpensive publicconversation between everyone. Low barriers to access mean that more people have achance to be heard and get their ideas into the global conversation that includes the news inthe 21st century.Though Walter Lippmann successfully promoted his model of the journalist as an elite newsprovider, the model contained the seeds of its own demise. Becoming part of an elite bringswith it pressure to serve those in power. The journalist gets distanced from the public he or she is supposed to serve. This can be seen in the migration of stories about wages andbenefits for workers from the news of the day to business sections, with shift in the point of view of these stories from the public to the business owner or manager today.In 2000, Christopher Locke, Rick Levine, Doc Searls, and David Weinberger putthe Cluetrain Manifesto online http://www.cluetrain.com/book/. It was signed bythousands of people and became the best-selling business book of 2001.Ironically, the entire text was available for free, online. They open the CluetrainManifesto, with these words, "
A powerful global conversation has begun. Through theInternet, people are discovering and inventing new ways to share relevant knowledge withblinding speed."
Dewey's citizen conversations found a medium of expression with the rise of the immense,immersive, networked communication that is the Internet. As the 20th century opens, thereare tools to talk to each other live, there are forums, there are video-casting tools, there arepodcasts and audio, video and text blogging. These are some of the many-to-maycommunication tools available to everyone from school children to soccer moms to senior citizens. CNN.com featured a summary of the news of 2007 taken exclusively from its
segments.In Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, Professor Henry Jenkins says"Right now, convergence culture is throwing media into flux, expanding opportunities for grassroots groups to speak back to the mass media." Digital convergence has steadily been