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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1 Air Traffic
1.2 Motor Vehicles
1.3 The Legislative Framework
Fundamentals
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Properties of Aerosol Particles
2.2.1 Diameter and Shape
2.2.2 Size Distribution
2.2.3 Transport and Deposition
2.2.4 Transformation and Mutation
2.3 Particles in the Atmosphere
2.3.1 Character and Behaviour
2.3.2 Aerosols in Nature
2.3.3 Anthropogenic Aerosols
2.3.4 Environmental Implications
2.4 Motor Vehicle Particulate
2.4.1 Some Typical Particles Dissected
2.4.2 What Happens Within the Engine
2.4.3 What Happens Within the Exhaust
2.4.4 Number Versus Mass
2.5 Closure
2.5.1 Properties of Aerosol Particles
2.5.2 Particles in the Atmosphere
2.5.3 Motor Vehicle Particulate
Formation I: Composition
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Carbonaceous Fraction: I. Classical Models
3.2.1 Empiricisms
3.2.2 Inception
3.2.3 Surface Growth
3.2.4 Agglomeration
3.2.5 Oxidation
3.4.2 Experimental
3.5 Ash Fraction
3.5.1 Chemical Reactions
3.5.2 Gas-to-Particle Conversion
3.6 Organic Fraction
3.6.1 Preparatory Chemical Reactions
3.6.2 Chemical Reactions in the Exhaust
3.6.3 Gas-to-Particle Conversion: Models
3.6.4 Gas-to-Particle Conversion: Measurements
3.6.5 White Smoke
3.7 Sulphate Fraction
3.7.1 Chemical Reactions
3.7.2 Gas-to-Particle Conversion
3.8 Closure
3.8.1 Carbonaceous Fraction I. Classical Models
3.8.3 Carbonaceous Fraction III. Wall Interactions
3.8.4 Ash Fraction
3.8.5 Organic Fraction
3.8.6 Sulphate Fraction
Formation II: Location
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Within the Exhaust System
4.2.1 Storage and Release
4.5 Within the Dilution Tunnel
4.6 On the Filter
4.7 Closure
4.7.1 Within the Exhaust System
4.7.2 Within the Exhaust Plume
4.7.3 Within the Transfer Line
4.7.4 Within the Dilution Tunnel
4.7.5 On the Filter
4.7.6 General Remarks
Measurement
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Particulate Measured Conventionally
5.2.1 Drawing a Sample of Exhaust Gas
5.2.2 Diluting the Exhaust
5.2.3 Collection onto a Filter
5.2.4 Fractionation by Gasification
5.2.5 Fractionation by Dissolution
5.2.6 Chemically Assaying the Organic Fraction
5.2.7 Biologically Assaying the Organic Fraction
5.3 Particulate Measured Individually
5.3.1 Inertial Mobility
5.3.2 Electrical Mobility
5.3.3 Laser-induced Incandescence
5.3.4 Light Scattering
5.4 Particulate Measured Collectively
5.4.1 Photoacousticity
5.4.2 Photoelectric and Diffusion Charging
5.4.3 Electrical Charge
5.4.4 Flame Ionisation
5.4.5 Mass
5.4.6 Smoke
5.5 Closure
5.5.1 Particulate Measured Conventionally
5.5.2 Particulate Measured Individually
5.5.3 Particulate Measured Collectively
5.5.4 Further Remarks
Characterisation
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Physical Characterisation
6.2.1 Microstructure
6.2.2 Morphology
6.2.3 Density
6.2.4 Surface Area
6.2.5 Electrical Charge
6.3 Chemical Characterisation
6.3.1 Carbonaceous Fraction
6.3.2 Ash Fraction
6.3.3 Organic Fraction
6.3.4 Sulphate Fraction
6.4 Biological Characterisation
6.5 Demographic Characterisation
6.6 Closure
6.6.1 Physical Characterisation
6.6.2 Chemical Characterisation
6.6.3 Biological Characterisation
6.6.4 Demographic Characterisation
Abatement
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Fuel Formulation
7.2.1 Sulphur
7.2.2 Hydrocarbons
7.2.3 Oxygenates
7.2.4 Additives
7.3 Fuel Injection
7.3.1 The Injector Nozzle
7.3.2 Injection Pressure
7.3.3 Injection Scheduling
7.4 Exhaust Gas Recirculation
7.5 Induction
7.5.1 External to the Engine
7.5.2 Internal to the Engine
7.6 Lubrication
7.6.1 Oil in Particulate
7.6.2 Particulate in Oil
7.7 Alternative Combustion Systems
7.8 Aftertreatment
7.8.1 Catalytic Converters
7.8.2 Particulate Filters
7.9 Closure
7.9.1 Fuel Formulation
7.9.2 Fuel Injection
7.9.3 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
7.9.4 Induction
7.9.5 Lubrication
7.9.6 Alternative Combustion Systems
7.9.7 Aftertreatment
Gasoline Engines
8.1 Introduction
8.3.2 Characterisation
8.3.3 Abatement
8.4 Direct-injection Engines
8.4.1 Formation
8.4.2 Characterisation
8.4.3 Abatement
8.5 Two-stroke Engines
8.6 Closure
8.6.1 Port-injection Engines
8.6.2 Direct-injection Engines
8.6.3 Two-stroke Engines
Disintegration
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Roads
9.3 Brakes
9.4 Tyres
9.5 Exhausts
9.6 Catalysts
9.7 Closure
9.7.1 Roads
9.7.2 Brakes
9.7.3 Tyres
9.7.4 Exhausts
9.7.5 Catalysts
Toxicology
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Public Exposure
10.2.1 Nanoparticles
10.3 Public Health
10.4 Pathogenesis
10.4.1 Particle Deposition and Clearance
10.4.3 Particle-induced Diseases
10.5 Epidemiology
10.6 In Vitro
10.7 In Vivo
10.8 Humans
10.9 Closure
10.9.1 Public Exposure
10.9.2 Public Health
10.9.3 Pathogenesis
10.9.4 Epidemiology
10.9.5 In Vitro
10.9.6 In Vivo
10.9.7 Humans
11.1.4 The Soot Sensor in Engine and Aftertreatment Management
11.1.7 Nanoparticles in Real Exhaust Plumes (and the Ambient)
11.1.8 How Should Primary and Secondary Particles Be Demarcated?
11.1.9 Will Gas–particle Partitioning in the Wider Environment Be Affected?
11.2 Smaller Particles in Larger Numbers; or Larger Particles in Smaller Numbers
Further Reading
Literature Cited (Cross-referenced Against the Text)
Index
P. 1
Particulate Emissions from Vehicles

Particulate Emissions from Vehicles

Ratings: (0)|Views: 8 |Likes:
Published by Wiley
The public health risks posed by automotive particulate emissions are well known. Such particles are sufficiently small to reach the deepest regions of the lungs; and moreover act as carriers for many potentially toxic substances. Historically, diesel engines have been singled out in this regard, but recent research shows the need to consider particulate emissions from gasoline engines as well. Already implicated in more than one respiratory disease, the strongest evidence in recent times points to particle-mediated cardiovascular disorders (strokes and heart attacks). Accordingly, legislation limiting particulate emissions is becoming increasingly stringent, placing great pressure on the automotive industry to produce cleaner vehicles - pressure only heightened by the ever-increasing number of cars on our roads. 

Particulate Emissions from Vehicles addresses a field of increased international interest and research activity; discusses the impact of new legislation globally on the automotive industry; and explains new ways of measuring particle size, number and composition that are currently under development. The expert analysis and summary of the state-of-the-art, which encompasses the key areas of combustion performance, measurement techniques and toxicology, will appeal to R&D practitioners and engineers working in the automotive industry and related mechanical fields, as well as postgraduate students and researchers of engine technology, air pollution and life/ environmental science. The public health aspects will also appeal to the biomedical research community.

The public health risks posed by automotive particulate emissions are well known. Such particles are sufficiently small to reach the deepest regions of the lungs; and moreover act as carriers for many potentially toxic substances. Historically, diesel engines have been singled out in this regard, but recent research shows the need to consider particulate emissions from gasoline engines as well. Already implicated in more than one respiratory disease, the strongest evidence in recent times points to particle-mediated cardiovascular disorders (strokes and heart attacks). Accordingly, legislation limiting particulate emissions is becoming increasingly stringent, placing great pressure on the automotive industry to produce cleaner vehicles - pressure only heightened by the ever-increasing number of cars on our roads. 

Particulate Emissions from Vehicles addresses a field of increased international interest and research activity; discusses the impact of new legislation globally on the automotive industry; and explains new ways of measuring particle size, number and composition that are currently under development. The expert analysis and summary of the state-of-the-art, which encompasses the key areas of combustion performance, measurement techniques and toxicology, will appeal to R&D practitioners and engineers working in the automotive industry and related mechanical fields, as well as postgraduate students and researchers of engine technology, air pollution and life/ environmental science. The public health aspects will also appeal to the biomedical research community.

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Publish date: Apr 15, 2008
Added to Scribd: Jun 17, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780470986509
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