Integrated Circuit (IC)
Athin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainlytransistors, as well as passive components like resistors.
An electronic circuit where in all the elements of the circuit are integrated together onasingle semiconductor substrate.
1) Film IC – a technique for depositing passive circuit elements on an insulating substratea.
Thin Film – films with thickness less than approximately 100 microns, usuallydeposited through evaporation or sputtering. b. Thick Films – produced by screening patterns of conducting and insulatingmaterials on ceramic substrates.2) Monolithic IC – a complete electronic circuit fabricated as an inseparable assembly of circuit elements, mostly active ones, in a single small semiconductor structure. Itcannot be divided without permanently destroying its intended electronicfunction. The physical properties of the semiconductor determine performance of the circuit to a large degree. Usual means of production are through diffusion andepitaxial methods. Most common integrated circuits such as microprocessors,memories, etc., are all monolithic.3) Hybrid IC – electronic circuit integrated on the ceramic substrate using variouscomponents and then enclosed in the single package. The substrate does not participate in the operation of the circuit, and connections between thecomponents are formed on its surface and some components such as resistors andinductors may be fabricated directly onto it
Fabricated using diversifiedtechnologies, e.g. monolithic, thick film, etc., it has the advantage of designflexibility; that is, they can be designed to provide wide use in specializedapplications, such as low-volume and high frequency circuits.
To provide the necessary functions of interconnection, physical support,environmental protection and heat dissipation, the whole IC must be surrounded by or encased in a package. Packages may be simple or they maybe complex-depending on thenature of the device, the system of which it is a part and the environment in which thedevice must operate.The very surrounding of the IC with protective material, however, can degrade the performance if the device, increase its physical size and weight, make testing the devicemore difficult and decrease reliability. Moreover, the art of making the electronic