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Integrated Circuits Lecture Notes

Integrated Circuits Lecture Notes

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Published by Joanna Fabricante

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Published by: Joanna Fabricante on Jun 17, 2013
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Integrated Circuits
Integrated Circuit (IC)
Athin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainlytransistors, as well as passive components like resistors.
An electronic circuit where in all the elements of the circuit are integrated together onasingle semiconductor substrate.
Fabrication Techniques
1) Film IC – a technique for depositing passive circuit elements on an insulating substratea.
Thin Film – films with thickness less than approximately 100 microns, usuallydeposited through evaporation or sputtering. b. Thick Films – produced by screening patterns of conducting and insulatingmaterials on ceramic substrates.2) Monolithic IC – a complete electronic circuit fabricated as an inseparable assembly of circuit elements, mostly active ones, in a single small semiconductor structure. Itcannot be divided without permanently destroying its intended electronicfunction. The physical properties of the semiconductor determine performance of the circuit to a large degree. Usual means of production are through diffusion andepitaxial methods. Most common integrated circuits such as microprocessors,memories, etc., are all monolithic.3) Hybrid IC – electronic circuit integrated on the ceramic substrate using variouscomponents and then enclosed in the single package. The substrate does not participate in the operation of the circuit, and connections between thecomponents are formed on its surface and some components such as resistors andinductors may be fabricated directly onto it
Fabricated using diversifiedtechnologies, e.g. monolithic, thick film, etc., it has the advantage of designflexibility; that is, they can be designed to provide wide use in specializedapplications, such as low-volume and high frequency circuits.
Packaging Techniques
To provide the necessary functions of interconnection, physical support,environmental protection and heat dissipation, the whole IC must be surrounded by or encased in a package. Packages may be simple or they maybe complex-depending on thenature of the device, the system of which it is a part and the environment in which thedevice must operate.The very surrounding of the IC with protective material, however, can degrade the performance if the device, increase its physical size and weight, make testing the devicemore difficult and decrease reliability. Moreover, the art of making the electronic
 package incur costs-which may be far higher than the cost of the active device itself.Thus, the art of providing an effective electronic package becomes a complex balance of  providing desired functions against constraints that may interact among themselves aseven further constraints.Functions: Interconnection, Physical Support, Environment Protection and HeatDissipationConstraints: Performance, Size, Weight, Testability, Reliability, and CostAs a practical matter, the IC manufacturer must decide whether to package a given IC inone or more standard packages (necessary for merchant sales) or develop one unique toits needs (giving it a systems advantage over its competitors).Packaging ExamplesI. Surface Mount Technology (SMT) - a manufacturing process that attaches componentson the surface of the printed circuit board rather than inserting components into plated-through holes, resulting in higher component density.A) Flat Pack - package with leads on two or four sides with either gull wing or flatleads. Many types of IC flat packs are being produced in various sizes andmaterials. These packages are available in square, rectangular, oval, and circular configurations with 10 to 60 external leads. They may be made of metal, ceramic,epoxy, glass, or combinations of those materials.
Quad Flat Pack (QFP) - a fine-pitch package that is rectangular or square withgull-wing shaped leads on all four sides. The lead pitch of a QFP is typicallyeither 0.8mm or 0.65mm, although there are variations on this theme with smaller lead pitches. Any of these packages can have a wide variety of lead counts from44 leads on up to 240 or more. Variations are Ceramic (CQFP), Plastic (PQFP), No Lead (NQFP), Thin (TQFP) and Very-thin (VQFP) or Low-profile (LQFP).B) Chip Carrier - a low profile four-sided (rectangular) part package, whosesemiconductor chip cavity or mounting area is a large fraction of the chip size.They first came out as leadless chip carriers (LCC), which are a type of packagingfor integrated circuits that has no "leads", but instead rounded pins through theedges of the ceramic package. However, by adding leads to the chip carrier, onehas less concern about thermal expansion mismatches.C) Ball Grid Array (BGA) - A flip-chip type of package in which the internal dieterminals form a grid-style array, and are in contact with solder balls (or solder  bumps), which carry the electrical connection to the outside of the package. ThePCB footprint will have round landing pads to which the solder balls will besoldered when the package and PCB are heated in a reflow oven. Advantages of the ball grid array package are that its size is compact and its leads do not getdamaged in handling (unlike the formed gull-wing leads of a QFP) and thus havealong shelf life. Disadvantages of the BGA are they, or their solder joints, aresubject to stress-related failure (the intense vibration of rocket-powered spacevehicles can pop them right off the PCB); they can not be hand-soldered (theyrequire a reflow oven), making first-article prototypes a bit more expensive tostuff; except for the outer rows, the solder joints can not be visually inspected andthey are difficult to rework.D) Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC) - a package with two parallel rows of 8-16 gull-wing leads protruding from its sides and has a lead pitch of 0.05 inches. Itoccupies an area about 30 - 50% less than an equivalent DIP, with a typicalthickness that is 70% less. It is an excellent choice for maximum board densityand is ideal for the automotive, telecommunications, computer industries, or anyindustry that requires dense placement of chips on boards.E) Thin Small Outline Package (TSOP) - package with two parallel rows of 20 to 48gull-wing leads. This package is constructed using the latest low stress moldingcompounds and bonding technology to provide a package with total bodythickness of less then 1.90 mm and a pitch is 20 mils. This package is popular for ROM applications in memory cards and other thin card applications. Variationsare Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP) and Thin Very Small OutlinePackage (TVSOP).II. Through-Hole Device (THD) - having pins designed to be inserted into holes andsoldered to pads on a printed board.A) Single In-line Package (SIP) - package which has one row of connecting pins. It isnot as popular as the dual in-line package, but has been used for packaging RAMchips and multiple resistors with a common pin. Standard lead pitch is 0.100 inch.B) Dual In-line Package (DIP) - package with two parallel rows of leads extendingfrom the base of the component. Standard lead pitch is 0.100 inch. Designed

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