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Quality and authenticity control of fruit purées, fruit preparations and jams

Quality and authenticity control of fruit purées, fruit preparations and jams

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quality control of fruit puree
quality control of fruit puree

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Published by: yuki_akitsu on Jun 17, 2013
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Quality andauthenticity controlof fruit pure´es, fruitpreparations and jams—a review
R. Fu¨gel, R. Carle andA. Schieber
Section Plant Foodstuff Technology, Institute of FoodTechnology, Hohenheim University, August-von-Hartmann-Strasse 3, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany(Tel.:
49 711 459 3125; fax:
49 711 459 4110;e-mail: schieber@uni-hohenheim.de)
Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problemconcerning most food commodities, in particular fruitproducts. Since high-priced fruits command premiumprices, producers of fruit-based products such as juices, jams, jellies, pure´es, and fruit preparationsmight be temptedto blend these products with cheaper fruits. In addition toadmixturesof adulterants,thelabelledfruitcontentsmaynotbe met. Both types of adulteration are difficult to detect andlead to a deterioration of product quality. For consumerprotection and to avoid unfair competition, it is of essentialimportance to guarantee both authenticity and compliancewith the product specification. While approaches for thedetection of fraudulent admixtures to fruit juices haveextensively been reviewed, the objective of the presenttreatise is to provide an overview of the approaches so farsuggested to detect and even quantify adulterations of theabove-mentioned fruit products.
Fruit preparations represent intermediate products usedin fermented milk products such as yogurt, sour milk and fresh cheese, and in pudding, cream, fruit milk and icecream. Another application is their use in bakery productsand confectionery. According to the German Associationfor Food Law and Food Science (BLL) definition, fruitpreparations are products meant for the production of dairyproducts which, as a rule, are produced from fruits or fruitconstituents and various sugars, and also essences, flavours,colouring foodstuffs, thickening agents and consumableacids, and which are preserved by appropriate methods. TheBLL guideline also specifies the quality requirements forfruits and fruit constituents meant for processing (Carle,1997). Accordingly, the fruits should be healthy and fresh,unfermented, and have a ripeness degree appropriate forprocessing. Fresh fruit or fruit concentrate as well asconcentrated fruit constituents may be used. The fruitcontent of the fruit preparations generally amounts to 35%.However, in the case of raspberry, raspberry-blackberry,redcurrant, gooseberry, plum and pineapple, the fruitcontent is at least 30%, and for banana and blackcurrant atleast 25%. Colouring foodstuffs such as juices from cherry,grape or red beet, are not considered part of the fruit content.Depending on the intended use, the dosage of fruitpreparations in dairy products ranges between 5 and 25%.The minimal amount of fresh fruit in yogurts with fruits isusually 6%. In the case of flavour-intensive fruits only 2%fruit is sufficient. Due to the low fruit contents and thecomplex matrix, quantitative and even qualitativeanalysis of fruit constituents in the end product is a verydemanding challenge.In contrast to fruit preparations, jams are usually destinedfor sale to the end consumer. The EU Council Directive2001/113/EC of 20 December, 2001, relating to jams, jelliesand marmalades and sweet chestnut pure´e intended forhuman consumption specifies both definitions and labellingof jams and related products. According to this directive, jam is a mixture, brought to a suitable gelled consistency, of sugars, the pulp and/or pure´e of one or more kinds of fruitand water. The quantity of pulp and/or pure´e used for themanufacture of 1000 g of finished product shall not be lessthan 350 g as a general rule, 250 g for redcurrants, rowanberries, sea-buckthorns, rosehips and quinces, 150 g forginger, 160 g for cashew apples, and 60 g for passion fruit.In the case of ‘Extra jam’, the quantity of pulp used shall notbe less than 450 g per 1000 g of the finished product. Allproducts defined in part I of Directive 2001/113/EC musthave a soluble dry matter content of 60% or more as
0924-2244/$ - see front matter
2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2005.07.001
Trends in Food Science & Technology 16 (2005) 433–441
* Corresponding author.
determined by refractometer, except for those productswhere sugars have been entirely or partially replaced bysweeteners.It is self-evident that the fruit content represents the mainqualityparameteroffruitpure´es,fruitpreparationsandjams.From a regulatory point of view, the specifications and thelabelled composition of fruit-based products have to be metin order to maintain product quality and authenticity. Fromaneconomicpointofview,productqualityisalsomajorissueof competition between producers. In addition, quality andauthenticity are of particular importance with respect toconsumer expectation. Fruit pure´es, fruit preparations and jams command premium prices and therefore representfavoured targets for adulterations, e.g. by blending high-priced fruits with cheaper fruits. In addition to admixture of adulterants, the specified fruit contents may not be met.For this reason, numerous attempts at finding suitablemethods for authenticity control and determination of thefruit content in fruit based products have been made.The major analytical problem is due to the complexity of theproducts and to the substantial variance of the fruit specificcomponents. Analytical techniques to face this challengeare at least as manifold as are the ways of adulteration,ranging from classical determination of chemical par-ameters to highly sophisticated instrumental techniques.While related reviews published during the past yearsfocussed on foods in general (Cordella, Moussa, Martel,Sbirrazzouli, & Lizzanti-Cuvelier, 2002), on specialtechniques such as DNA-based and biotechnologicalmethods (Lees, 2003; Lockley & Bardsley, 2000; Popping,2002; Tzouros & Arvanitoyannis, 2001) or on different foodgroups (Arvanitoyannis & van Houwelingen-Koukaliaro-glou, 2003; Bogdanov & Martin, 2002; Martinez
,2003), the objective of the present treatise is to summarisestudies so far conducted on authenticity and quality controlof fruit pure´es, fruit preparations and jams.
Multivariate compositional analysis
Chemical parameters
Most attempts to determine the amount of fruit inprocessed fruit products have been based on the investi-gation of one or more fruit-specific constituents. The indexcompounds considered should show constant contents in therespective fruit species and should not be subject toalterations during processing. Variations in their contentsare caused by a multitude of factors such as horticulturalpractices, variety, origin, and ripening stage of the fruits. Asa consequence, a considerable amount of data needs to becompiled for statistical treatment, which is a prerequisite forthe assignment of the probable limits of the values of therelevant constituents.Goodall and Scholey (1975)employed multivariatestatistical analysis including 23 parameters and a total of 54 samples of strawberries for the prediction of the fruitcontent and for authenticity control of fruit products.Compared to the use of only few compounds, animprovement in the estimates was achieved, and the highlysignificant correlations between pairs of parameters indi-cated that their ratios might be useful for the determinationof fruit authenticity. Comprehensive investigations of fruitswere performed including dry matter, ash, insoluble solids,weight of cores, malic acid, phosphorus, potassium, calciumand magnesium as index compounds (Prehn, Bosch, &Nehring, 1977a,b; Prehn & Nehring, 1977a,b; Prehn,Thaler, & Nehring, 1977). Despite the enormous data poolcomprising 270 strawberry samples, 135 cherry samples,and 117 apricot samples, the ‘idealmarker compoundcould not be found. High variation coefficients as aconsequence of biological heterogeneities necessitated theestablishment of a statistical model. However, owing to thetedious statistical operations and unsatisfactory results, thismethod has not found acceptance.Apart from jams, the determination of the fruit content of fruit preparations has always been a matter of intenseresearch.Wallrauch (1995)considered the parameters citric,isocitric, and malic acids, as well as potassium, magnesium,phosphate, and the formol index, which were found to besubject to only minor variations. Data were collected fromthe most important strawberry cultivars and proveniences todeduce an equation for the calculation of the fruit content.Acceptable estimates were obtained for the fruit content of authentic strawberry pure´es, provided that the parametersoriginate from the same fruits and interfering ingredientswere not used. However, application of this formulato industrially produced fruit preparations led tooverestimation of the fruit contents, due to the presence of indispensable ingredients such as colouring foodstuffs,sweeteners, thickeners, and consumable acids. Sincecorrectionsinthecalculationofthefruitcontentarerequired,the applicability of the formula is restricted to fruitpreparations of known composition, which is usually notthe case.
Rheological parameters
In consideration to the limitations of multicomponentanalysis based exclusively on chemical index parameters,further attributes were studied with respect to quality controloffruit derived products, such asthe characterisationof theirrheological behaviour.Costell, Carbonell, and Duran (1987)pointedoutthattherelationshipbetweenfruitcontentofjamsandbothspecificfruitcomponentsandparticularrheologicalparameters could be a suitable approach to the estimation of the fruit weight. Fifteen strawberry jams with fruit contentsranging from 28 to 61% were examined including twochemical (Mg and N) and three rheological indices (yieldstress and relation between two apparent viscosity par-ameters). The correlation coefficients between fruit contentand these five parameters obtained by stepwise linearregression were higher (
0.897) than those obtainedwhen chemical and rheological parameters were consideredseparately (
0.799 and 0.707, respectively). Significantdifferences of rheological parameters (Weltmann A and B
R. Fu ¨ gel et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 16 (2005) 433–441
constants, yield stress, flow behaviour) were found depen-dent on fruit content of jams from strawberry, peach, plum,and apricot (Carbonell, Costell, & Duran, 1991a). Besidecomponentsoriginatingfromthefruit,otheringredientssuchassugarandpectingreatlyaffecttherheologicalbehaviourof  jams. Therefore, the influence of the main compositionfactors (fruit content, soluble solids and pectin) on therheological parameters of sheared jams was studied in orderto determine their suitability for the estimation of the fruitcontent (Carbonell, Costell, & Duran, 1991b; Costell,Carbonell, & Duran, 1993). Strawberry and peach jamswere selected representing different structures and texturesoftherespectivefruitpulps.Time-dependentflowbehaviourof sheared jams (Weltmann A and B) and yield stresscalculated from measurements at low and medium shearrates, respectively, were considered in combination with thechemical parameters galacturonic acid content and solublesolids. The regression equations obtained allowed aprediction accuracy of 79.5 and 91.1% for the fruit contentof strawberry and peach jams, respectively.
Index compounds
Organic acids and sugars
Organic acids in fruits exhibit a low susceptibility tochanges during processing and storage, combined with anadequate stability compared to pigments and flavourcompounds. Accordingly, their quantification and charac-terization appears to be suitable for the estimation of theamount offruit as well as for the control offruit authenticity.However, since organic acids are indispensable technologi-cal ingredients of most recipes, it becomes evident that thisanalytical tool is not applicable to jams and fruitpreparations. Furthermore, depending on cultivar anddegree of ripeness, organic acid contents are subject toconsiderable variations, thus limiting their applicability as aquantitative marker also in fruit juices and pure´es. Levelsand ratios of certain organic acids such as quinic acid incranberries and tartaric acid in grapes were found to besuitable markers for the detection of adulterations (Coppola& Starr, 1988). The organic acid profile also providesvaluable information on the authenticity of apple juice(Wucherpfennig, 1976). Since only
-malic acid occursnaturally, the presence of 
-malic acid indicates admixtureof a synthetic malic acid racemate.Ca´mara, Dı´ez, Torija,and Cano (1994)concluded that the ratio citric/ 
-malic acidcould serve as a reference index of authenticity forpineapple juices and nectars. Quinic acid, ascorbic acid,potassium and arginine were identified as specific markercompounds to prove the origin of kiwi pure´e(Castaldo,Lo Voi, Trifiro, & Gherardi, 1992). However, the estimationof the fruit amount in the kiwi products could not beaccomplished. Citric acid was found to be a suitable markerto distinguish homemade from industrially produced quince jams (Silva, Andrade, Mendes, Seabra, & Ferreira, 2002).Apart from organic acids, the sugar profiles were alsoused for the differentiation offruit species, whereas their useas quantifiersoffruit contents isvery limited. Identical sugarpatterns were observed for fruits from various countries aswell as for different varieties (Fitelson, 1970), which couldbe used for the detection of an illegal admixture of sugarsolutions or fruit juices.Pilando and Wrolstad (1992)characterised non-volatile acids and sugars in combinationwith minerals and UV spectral profiles of commercial fruit juice concentrates to evaluate their quality and authenticity.Differences were monitored in the content of malic, fumaricand quinic acids between hard and soft pears, while sorbitollevels and glucose:fructose ratios allowed the discrimi-nation of prune and pear.
Former studies focussed on the characterisation of phenolic compounds mainly for chemotaxonomic purposes.In recent years, improvements in instrumental analysis, inparticular advances in liquid chromatography, provideddetailed information on the profile of phenolic compoundsand opened up new perspectives in the characterisation of fruits and derived products. Since the polyphenoliccomposition of fruits shows qualitative and quantitativedifferences depending, among others, on species, cultivar,and ripening stage, the determination of phenoliccompounds is a useful tool for authenticity control of fruitbased products and for the detection of fraudulentadmixtures.Toma´s-Lorente, Garcı´a-Viguera, Ferreres, andToma´s-Barbera´n (1992)investigated the flavonoid profilesof commercial jams from apricot, peach, plum, strawberry,sour orange, apple, and pear. Since each jam showed adistinctive flavonoid pattern characterised by the presenceof one or more markers, these compounds could be used forthe detection of admixture of apple to apricot, peach, or pear jams by determination of the dihydrochalcone glycosidesphloridzin and phloretin xyloglucoside. On the other hand,rutin proved to be characteristic of apricot and couldtherefore be used to prove the addition of apricot topeach jams. The flavonoid profile was also demonstratedto be suitable for authenticity control of citrus jams (Garcı´a-Viguera
, 1993), especially since the flavonoids werenot affected by the manufacturing process. 5-
-caffeoyl-quinic acid and quercetin galactoside were the predominantphenolic compounds of quince jellies and jams (Silva
,2000). The influence of variety, maturity and processingon phenolic compounds of apricot jams and juiceswas studied byGarcı´a-Viguera, Bridle, Ferreres, andToma´s-Barbera´n (1994).While identical phenolic profileswere observed for all 11 apricot cultivars investigated,differences in the phenolic contents were found to dependon cultivar and maturity stage. Chlorogenic acid was themajor phenolic compound, followed by the flavonoidquercetin rutinoside, smaller amounts of kaempferol rutino-side, and traces of other quercetin and kaempferolglycosides. Processing of apricots during jam and juiceproduction did not change the qualitative phenoliccomposition.
R. Fu ¨ gel et al. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 16 (2005) 433–441

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