Quality andauthenticity controlof fruit pure´es, fruitpreparations and jams—a review
R. Fu¨gel, R. Carle andA. Schieber
Section Plant Foodstuff Technology, Institute of FoodTechnology, Hohenheim University, August-von-Hartmann-Strasse 3, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany(Tel.:
49 711 459 3125; fax:
49 711 459 4110;e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problemconcerning most food commodities, in particular fruitproducts. Since high-priced fruits command premiumprices, producers of fruit-based products such as juices, jams, jellies, pure´es, and fruit preparationsmight be temptedto blend these products with cheaper fruits. In addition toadmixturesof adulterants,thelabelledfruitcontentsmaynotbe met. Both types of adulteration are difﬁcult to detect andlead to a deterioration of product quality. For consumerprotection and to avoid unfair competition, it is of essentialimportance to guarantee both authenticity and compliancewith the product speciﬁcation. While approaches for thedetection of fraudulent admixtures to fruit juices haveextensively been reviewed, the objective of the presenttreatise is to provide an overview of the approaches so farsuggested to detect and even quantify adulterations of theabove-mentioned fruit products.
Fruit preparations represent intermediate products usedin fermented milk products such as yogurt, sour milk and fresh cheese, and in pudding, cream, fruit milk and icecream. Another application is their use in bakery productsand confectionery. According to the German Associationfor Food Law and Food Science (BLL) deﬁnition, fruitpreparations are products meant for the production of dairyproducts which, as a rule, are produced from fruits or fruitconstituents and various sugars, and also essences, ﬂavours,colouring foodstuffs, thickening agents and consumableacids, and which are preserved by appropriate methods. TheBLL guideline also speciﬁes the quality requirements forfruits and fruit constituents meant for processing (Carle,1997). Accordingly, the fruits should be healthy and fresh,unfermented, and have a ripeness degree appropriate forprocessing. Fresh fruit or fruit concentrate as well asconcentrated fruit constituents may be used. The fruitcontent of the fruit preparations generally amounts to 35%.However, in the case of raspberry, raspberry-blackberry,redcurrant, gooseberry, plum and pineapple, the fruitcontent is at least 30%, and for banana and blackcurrant atleast 25%. Colouring foodstuffs such as juices from cherry,grape or red beet, are not considered part of the fruit content.Depending on the intended use, the dosage of fruitpreparations in dairy products ranges between 5 and 25%.The minimal amount of fresh fruit in yogurts with fruits isusually 6%. In the case of ﬂavour-intensive fruits only 2%fruit is sufﬁcient. Due to the low fruit contents and thecomplex matrix, quantitative and even qualitativeanalysis of fruit constituents in the end product is a verydemanding challenge.In contrast to fruit preparations, jams are usually destinedfor sale to the end consumer. The EU Council Directive2001/113/EC of 20 December, 2001, relating to jams, jelliesand marmalades and sweet chestnut pure´e intended forhuman consumption speciﬁes both deﬁnitions and labellingof jams and related products. According to this directive, jam is a mixture, brought to a suitable gelled consistency, of sugars, the pulp and/or pure´e of one or more kinds of fruitand water. The quantity of pulp and/or pure´e used for themanufacture of 1000 g of ﬁnished product shall not be lessthan 350 g as a general rule, 250 g for redcurrants, rowanberries, sea-buckthorns, rosehips and quinces, 150 g forginger, 160 g for cashew apples, and 60 g for passion fruit.In the case of ‘Extra jam’, the quantity of pulp used shall notbe less than 450 g per 1000 g of the ﬁnished product. Allproducts deﬁned in part I of Directive 2001/113/EC musthave a soluble dry matter content of 60% or more as
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2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2005.07.001
Trends in Food Science & Technology 16 (2005) 433–441
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