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WOWLibrary-Fundamentals MMA Welding_2

WOWLibrary-Fundamentals MMA Welding_2

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Published by: Andy Chong on Jun 18, 2013
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AU : IPRM 2007 : SectIon 8 : conSUMAbleS
 Wlding can giv ris to lctric shock, xcssiv nois, y and skin brns d to th arc rays, and a potntial halth hazard i yo brath in th mittd ms and gass.Rad all th manactrr’s instrctions to achiv th corrct wlding conditions and ask yor mployr or th Matrials Saty Data Shts. Rr to www.boc.com.a or www.boc.co.nz
Fundamentals of Manual Metal Arc(MMA) Welding
 Wdig thiqu
Sccssl MMA wlding dpnds on th ollowing actors:Slction o th corrct lctrodSlction o th corrct siz o th lctrod or th jobCorrct wlding crrntCorrct arc lngthCorrct angl o lctrod to work Corrct travl spdCorrct prparation o work to b wldd.
erd Si
As a gnral rl, th slction o an lctrod is straight orward,in that it is only a mattr o slcting an lctrod o similarcomposition to th parnt mtal. Howvr, or som mtals thris a choic o svral lctrods, ach o which has particlarproprtis to sit spcic classs o work. Otn, on lctrod inth grop will b mor sitabl or gnral applications d to its allrond qalitis.Th tabl blow shows jst a w o th wid rang o lctrodsavailabl rom BOC, with thir typical aras o application.For xampl, th avrag wldr will carry ot most abricationsing mild stl and or this matrial has a choic o variosstandard BOC lctrods, ach o which will hav qalitissitd to particlar tasks. For gnral mild stl work, howvr,BOC Smootharc 13 lctrods will handl virtally all applications.BOC Smootharc 13 is sitabl or wlding mild stl in all positionssing AC or DC powr sorcs. Its asy striking charactristics andth tolranc it has or work whr t-p and plat sracs ar notconsidrd good, mak it th most attractiv lctrod o its class.Continos dvlopmnt and improvmnt o BOC Smootharc13 hav providd in-bilt oprating qalitis, which appal to thbginnr and xprincd oprator alik. For rthr advic on thslction o lctrods or spcic applications, or to obtain a copyo th ‘Wlding Consmabls: Slction Chart’, contact yor localBOC rprsntativ on 131 262.
Electrodes and Typical Applications
BOC Smootharc 13e6013A prmim qality lctrodor gnral strctral andsht mtal work in allpositions, inclding vrtical-down sing low carbon stlsBOC Smootharc 24e7024 An iron powdr lctrodor high spd wlding orH-V llts and fat btt joints.Mdim to havy strctralapplications in low carbonstlsBOC Smootharc 18e7018-1A prmim qality, allpositional hydrogncontrolld lctrod orcarbon stls in prssrvssl applications andwhr high intgrity wldingis rqird; and or r-machining stls containingslphrBOC Smootharc S 308Le308LRtilbasic coatd lowcarbon lctrods or wldingastnitic stainlss stlBOC Smootharc S 316Le316LBOC Smootharc S 309Le309LRtilbasic coatd lowcarbon lctrod or wldingmild stl to stainlss stland diclt to wld matrial
erd Siz
Th siz o th lctrod gnrally dpnds on th thicknss o th sction bing wldd, and th thickr th sction th largr thlctrod rqird. In th cas o light sht, th lctrod siz sdis gnrally slightly largr than th work bing wldd. This mansthat, i 2.0 mm sht is bing wldd, 2.5 mm diamtr lctrod isth rcommndd siz.Th ollowing tabl givs th maximm siz o lctrods that mayb sd or varios thicknsss o sction.
AU : IPRM 2007 : SectIon 8 : conSUMAbleS
 Wlding can giv ris to lctric shock, xcssiv nois, y and skin brns d to th arc rays, and a potntial halth hazard i yo brath in th mittd ms and gass.Rad all th manactrr’s instrctions to achiv th corrct wlding conditions and ask yor mployr or th Matrials Saty Data Shts. Rr to www.boc.com.a or www.boc.co.nz
Fndamntals o Manal Mtal Arc (MMA) Wlding
Recommended Electrode Sizes
Avrag Thicknss o Plat orSctionMaximm Rcommnddelctrod Diamtr
1.52.0 mm2.5 mm2.05.0 mm3.2 mm5.08.0 mm4.0 mm
8.0 mm5.0 mm
 Wdig curr
Corrct crrnt slction or a particlar job is an important actorin arc wlding. With th crrnt st too low, diclty is xprincdin striking and maintaining a stabl arc. Th lctrod tnds to stick to th work, pntration is poor and bads with a distinct ronddprol will b dpositd.excssiv crrnt is accompanid by ovrhating o th lctrod.It will cas ndrct and brning throgh o th matrial, andwill giv xcssiv spattr. Normal crrnt or a particlar jobmay b considrd as th maximm, which can b sd withotbrning throgh th work, ovr-hating th lctrod or prodcinga rogh spattrd srac (i.. th crrnt in th middl o thrang spcid on th lctrod packag is considrd to b thoptimm).In th cas, o wlding machins with sparat trminals ordirnt siz lctrods, nsr that th wlding lad is connctdto th corrct trminal or th siz lctrod bing sd. Whnsing machins with adjstabl crrnt, st on th crrntrang spcid. Th limits o this rang shold not normally bxcdd. Th ollowing tabl shows th crrnt rangs gnrallyrcommndd or BOC Smootharc 13.
Generally Recommended CurrentRange for BOC Smootharc 13
elctrodSiz(mm)Crrnt Rang(Amp)
Ar lgh
To strik th arc, th lctrod shold b gntly scrapd on thwork ntil th arc is stablishd. Thr is a simpl rl or thpropr arc lngth; it shold b th shortst arc that givs a goodsrac to th wld. An arc too long rdcs pntration, prodcsspattr and givs a rogh srac nish to th wld. An xcssivlyshort arc will cas sticking o th lctrod and rogh dpositsthat ar associatd with slag inclsions.For downhand wlding, an arc lngth not gratr than th diamtro th cor wir will b most satisactory. Ovrhad wldingrqirs a vry short arc, so that a minimm o mtal will b lost.Crtain BOC lctrods hav bn spcially dsignd or ‘toch’wlding. Ths lctrods may b draggd along th work and aprctly sond wld is prodcd.
erd Ag
Th angl that th lctrod maks with th work is important tonsr a smooth, vn transr o mtal.Th rcommndd angls or s in th varios wlding positionsar covrd latr.
crr trav Spd
Th lctrod shold b movd along in th dirction o th jointbing wldd at a spd that will giv th siz o rn rqird. Atth sam tim, th lctrod is d downwards to kp th corrctarc lngth at all tims. As a gid or gnral applications, th tablblow givs rcommndd rn lngths or th downhand position.Corrct travl spd or normal wlding applications varis btwnapproximatly 100 and 300 mm pr mint, dpnding on lctrodsiz, siz o rn rqird and th amprag sd.excssiv travl spds lad to poor sion, lack o pntration tc,whil too slow a rat o travl will rqntly lad to arc instability,slag inclsions and poor mchanical proprtis.
Run Length per Electrode – BOC Smootharc 13
elctrod Siz(mm)elctrodLngth (mm)Rn Lngth (mm)MinimmMaximm
crr Wrk Prparai
Th mthod o prparation o componnts to b wldd willdpnd on qipmnt availabl and rlativ costs. Mthods mayincld sawing, pnching, sharing, machining, fam ctting andothrs.In all cass dgs shold b prpard or th joints that sit thapplication.Th ollowing sction dscribs th varios joint typsand aras o application.
typs f Jis
bu Wds
A btt wld is a wld mad btwn two plats so as to givcontinity o sction.Clos attntion mst b paid to dtail in a btt wld to nsr thatth maximm strngth o th wld is dvlopd. Failr to proprlyprpar th dgs may lad to th prodction o alty wlds, ascorrct maniplation o th lctrod is impdd.
Butt Welding 
Weld FaceReinforcementRoot FaceRoot Gap
Fndamntals o Manal Mtal Arc (MMA) Wlding
AU : IPRM 2007 : SectIon 8 : conSUMAbleS
 Wlding can giv ris to lctric shock, xcssiv nois, y and skin brns d to th arc rays, and a potntial halth hazard i yo brath in th mittd ms and gass.Rad all th manactrr’s instrctions to achiv th corrct wlding conditions and ask yor mployr or th Matrials Saty Data Shts. Rr to www.boc.com.a or www.boc.co.nz
Fndamntals o Manal Mtal Arc (MMA) Wlding
Two trms rlating to th prparation o btt wlds rqirxplanation at this stag. Thy ar:Root Fac: th proportion o th prpard dg that has notbn bvlld (Land).Root Gap: th sparation btwn root acs o th parts to b joind.Varios typs o btt wlds ar in common s and thir sitabilityor dirnt thicknss o stl ar dscribd as ollows:
Square Butt Weld 
Th dgs ar not prpard, bt ar sparatdslightly to allow sion throgh th ll thicknsso th stl. Sitabl or plat p to 6 mm inthicknss.
Single ‘V’ Butt Weld 
This is commonly sd or plat p to 16 mmin thicknss and on mtal o gratr thicknsswhr accss is availabl rom only on sid.
Double ‘V’ Butt Weld 
usd on plat o 12 mm and ovr in thicknsswhn wlding can b applid rom both sids.It allows astr wlding and gratr conomyo lctrods than a singl ‘V’ prparation onth sam thicknss o stl and also has lsstndncy to distortion as wld contraction canb qalisd.
Butt Weld with Backing Material
Whn sqar btt wlds or singl ‘V’ wldscannot b wldd rom both sids, it is dsirablto s a backing bar to nsr complt sion.
Single ‘U’ Butt Weld 
usd on thick plats as an altrnativ to a singl‘V’ prparation. It has advantags in spd o wlding. It taks lss wld mtal than a singl ‘V’,thr is lss contraction and thr is, thror,a lssnd tndncy to distortion. Prparationis mor xpnsiv than in th cas o a ‘V’, asmachining is rqird. This typ o joint is mostsitabl or matrial ovr 40 mm in thicknss.
Double ‘U’ Butt Weld 
For s on thick plat that is accssibl orwlding rom both sids. For a givn thicknss itis astr, nds lss wld mtal and cass lssdistortion than a singl ‘u’ prparation.
Horizontal Butt Weld 
Th lowr mmbr in this cas is bvlld toapproximatly 15° and th ppr mmbr 45°,making an incldd angl o 60°. This prparationprovids a ldg on th lowr mmbr, whichtnds to rtain th moltn mtal.
Gra ns  bu Wds
Th rst rn in a prpard btt wld shold b dpositd with anlctrod not largr than 4.0 mm. Th angl o th lctrod or thvarios rns in a btt wld is shown blow.It is ncssary to maintain th root gap by tacking at intrvals or byothr mans, as it will tnd to clos dring wlding.All singl ‘V’, singl ‘u’ and sqar btt wlds shold hav a backingrn dpositd on th ndrsid o th joint, othrwis 50% may bddctd rom th prmissibl working strss o th joint.Bor procding with a rn on th ndrsid o a wld, it isncssary to back-gog or grind that sid o th joint.Btt wlds shold b ovrlld to a crtain xtnt by bildingp th wld ntil it is abov th srac o th plat. excssivrinorcmnt, howvr, shold b avoidd.In mlti-rn btt wlds, it is ncssary to rmov all slag andsrpls wld mtal bor a start is mad on additional rns. This isparticlarly important with th rst rn, which tnds to orm sharpcornrs that cannot b pntratd with sbsqnt rns. elctrodslargr than 4.0 mm ar not gnrally sd or vrtical or ovrhadbtt wlds.Th diagrams blow indicat th corrct procdr or wldingthick plat whn sing mltipl rns.
Bead Sequence for 1st and 2nd Layers
Bead Sequence for Subsequent Layers
Welding Progression Angle
38174621Wld Mtal2Workpic3elctrod4Slag5Wlding Dirction670–85° Angl7Arc8Wld Pool5
Fndamntals o Manal Mtal Arc (MMA) Wlding

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