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Supplementary Information for 'The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution'

Supplementary Information for 'The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution'

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Supplementary Materials
Supplementary Materials

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Published by: zxps9998712 on Jun 18, 2013
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11/04/2013

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2
Synchrotron micr otomography and 3-D reconstruction
7
8
4
3
Foot intrinsic proportion3
7
Activity pattern prediction4
2
Dietary adaptation4
8
Phylogenetic analysis5
1
Synapomorphies for primates, strepsirrhines, haplorhines, tarsiiforms, and anthropoids6
2
References
79
WWW.NATURE.COM/NATURE | 1
 
Geological background 
The new primate fossil was discovered from the middle part of the Lower Eocene Yangxi Formation at a locality near Jingzhou, about 270 km southwest of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province in central China (S-Figure 1). Outcrops of the YangxiFormation are widely distributed in the northwestern part of the Jianghan Basin, which lies in the central and southern part of Hubei Province
. The thickest part of the Yangxi Formation is over 700 meters.S-Figure 1. Location map of 
 Archicebus achilles
gen. et sp. nov..Ostracods recovered from this unit include
Cypris henanensis
,
.
 pagei
,
Sinocypris reticulata
,
 Limnocytherehubeiensis
,
 L. spinisalata
,
 L. fangxiensis
,
Candona abrupta
,
 Ilyocypris errabundoides
,
 I. lauta
,
Sinometacyprisdongyuemiaoensis
,
Cyprinotus subtriangularis
,
Candoniella habilis
,
 Paracandona reniformis
and
Cyprois tantouensis
 
. Thisassemblage is dominated by
C. henanensis
,
S. reticulata
and
 L. hubeiensis
, closely resembling the ostracod fauna from the Lower Eocene Lingcha Formation of Hunan Province and the Yuhuangding Formation of Hubei Province
2,4
. The gastropod fauna fromthe Yangxi Formation was named the
 Melanoides aspericostata
-
Truncatella hubeiensis
Assemblage
5
, including
 Hydrobia zhichengensis
,
 Bithynia lordostoma
,
 Melanoides striata
,
 M. aspericostata
,
 M. macra
,
Truncatella hubeiensis
,
 Physa scitula
,
 Australorbis odhner 
and
Sinopupoides hubeiensis
. Most of these gastropods are typical late Paleocene and early Eocene elements
5
JingzhouWuhan
Hubei ProvinceHunanProvinceJiangxiProvince
Lake Dongting
Y    a  n   g  t   z   e  
 R i v e r
   Y  a  n  g    t  z  e
   R   i   v  e  r
Fossillocality
Yangtze
R  i   v  e  r  
China
BeijingHubei Province
WWW.NATURE.COM/NATURE | 2
 
The vertebrate fossils from the Yangxi Formation include fishes, turtles, birds and a few mammals. The fossil turtlesare from the lower part of the Yangxi Formation, including
 Aspideretes muyuensis
and
 Aspideretes
sp.
6,7
.
 Aspideretes
is verycommon in Cretaceous-Eocene sediments in central China
.The middle part of the Yangxi Formation contains a bed of black and gray shale (S-Table 1, S-Figure 2), which isrichly fossiliferous
1-3
. Numerous fishes, a few birds, and the new primate reported here were recovered from this shale bed. Mostof the fish fossils are identified as
 Jianghanichthys hubeiensis
, an early Eocene catostomid
. A few fossil bird specimensdiscovered from the shale layer represent only one species of Gruiformes,
Songzia
 
heidangkouensis
 
11
.Fossil mammals are very rare in the Yangxi Formation. Besides the new primate reported here, only two other mammal taxa, the coryphodontids,
 Asiocoryphodon
sp., cf.
 A
.
conicus
and
 Eudinoceras zhichengensis
, were recovered from theupper part of the Yangxi Formation
.
 A. conicus
is a primitive coryphodontid originally described from the Lower EoceneYuhuangding Formation of Henan Province, China
13
. The age of the mammalian fauna from the Yuhuangding Formation iscorrelated to the Bumbanian Asian Land Mammal Age
. An unnamed
 Asiocoryphodon
is also known from the Lingchamammalian fauna in Hunan Province. The age of the Lingcha mammalian fauna has been dated as earliest Eocene
.
 E. zhichengensis
was originally described as
Coryphodon zhichengensis
 
. Mao and Wang
suggested that this species should beallocated to
 Eudinoceras
. They also suggested that
 E. zhichengensis
is much more primitive than
 E. mongoliensis
from the basallayer of the Arshanto Formation, which is consistent with a Bumbanian age for the former species
.Charophytes from the Yangxi Formation are relatively rare
, and belong to the
 Neochara huananensi-Grovesicharachangzhouensis
-
Obtusochara prisca
Assemblage, a typical early Eocene charophyte assemblage in China
. Spores and pollenfrom the Yangxi Formation are very rich. Two spore-pollen assemblages were identified:
Ulmipollenites
-
 Potamogetoniaceaepites
 and
 Polypodiaceoisporites
-
 Myrtaceidites
, which are normally seen in Late Cretaceous to Eocene strata in China
. These spore- pollen assemblages also imply that the paleoenvironment during deposition of the Yangxi Formation was warm and humid
.The Bumbanian has recently been calibrated as 55.8-54.8 Ma based on paleomagnetic work 
. Considering that thestratigraphic horizon yielding the new primate is much lower than those bearing
 Asiocoryphodon
sp., cf.
 A. conicus
and
 E. zhichengensis
, and the invertebrate assemblages from the primate-bearing layer show both late Paleocene and early Eoceneelements, we regard the age of the primate-bearing layer of the Yangxi Formation probably as earliest Eocene.
WWW.NATURE.COM/NATURE | 3

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