Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma 20133Atiqah Ismail
Implementation: Principles, Tools & Techniques
There are five fundamental principles of lean. These are represented as a five-step process for guiding the implementation of lean (Womack and Jones, 1996; Womack, 2002):1.
Identify and specify the value desired by the customer,2.
Identify and map the value stream and eliminate processes that do not add-value,3.
Ensure product or service flow continuously,4.
Introduce pull-system between all steps in the value streamDesign and provide what the customer wants only when the customer wants it.5.
Pursue perfectionSystematically and continuously eliminates the root cause of waste, to achieve theultimate goal of zero defects.To effectively implement the lean principles, a number of interconnected elements must be in place (Russell and Taylor, 2009; Hicks, 2012); these are listed in Table 2.
Elements of LeanFundamental elements for the implementation of Lean
Workplace management (
Quick set-ups (i.e. set-up timereduction)2.
Flexible resources 8.
Uniform production levels3.
Cellular layout (or cellular manufacturing)9.
Quality at the source (i.e. gettingit right the first time)4.
Pull systems 10.
Total preventative maintenance5.
Small lot sizes (i.e. small machineconcept)
Russell and Taylor (2009), Slack
. (2010), Hicks (2012)Lean is a commitment to achieve totally waste-free operations. Therefore, to implement andachieve lean, the firm must depart from traditional thinking, and first implement changeamongst the shop-floor workers and the entire organisation workforce through their positiveand active support.