powerful lobbying group in Washington—and the Zionist Organization of America(ZOA). Indeed, as discussed below, prominent neoconservatives have been associatedwith such overtly pro-Israel organizations as the Jewish Institute for National SecurityAffairs (JINSA), the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP), and ZOA.(Acronyms of the main neoconservative and pro-Israel activist organizations used in this paper are provided in Table 2.)
Table 2: Acronyms of Neoconservative and Pro-IsraelActivist Organizations Used in this Paper
AEI: American Enterprise Institute—
A neoconservative think tank; producesand disseminates books and articles on foreign and domestic policy;http://www.aei.org/.
AIPAC: American Israel Public Affairs Committee—
The main pro-Israellobbying organization in the U.S., specializing in influencing the U.S. Congress;http://www.aipac.org/.
CSP: Center for Security Policy—
Neoconservative think tank specializing indefense policy; formerly headed by Douglas Feith, CSP is now headed by Frank Gaffney; the CSP is strongly pro-Israel and favors a strong U.S. military;http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/.
JINSA: Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs—
Pro-Israel think tank specializing in promoting military cooperation between the U.S. and Israel;http://www.jinsa.org/.
MEF: Middle East Forum—
Headed by Daniel Pipes, the MEF is a pro-Israeladvocacy organization overlapping with the WINEP but generally more strident;http://www.meforum.org/.
PNAC: Project for the New American Century—
Headed by Bill Kristol, thePNAC issues letters and statements signed mainly by prominent neocons anddesigned to influence public policy; http://www.newamericancentury.org/.
SD/USA: Social Democrats/USA—
“Left-neoconservative” political organizationadvocating pro-labor social policy and pro-Israel, anticommunist foreign policy;http://www.socialdemocrats.org/.
WINEP: Washington Institute for Near East Policy—
Pro-Israel think tank specializing in producing and disseminating pro-Israel media material;http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/.
ZOA: Zionist Organization of America—
Pro-Israel lobbying organizationassociated with the more fanatical end of the pro-Israel spectrum in America;http://www.zoa.org/.Compared with their deep and emotionally intense commitment to Israel,neoconservative attitudes on domestic policy seem more or less an afterthought, and theywill not be the main focus here. In general, neoconservatives advocate maintaining thesocial welfare, immigration, and civil rights policies typical of liberalism (and the wider Jewish community) up to about 1970. Some of these policies represent clear examples of Jewish ethnic strategizing—in particular, the role of the entire Jewish political spectrumand the entire organized Jewish community as the moving force behind the immigrationlaw of 1965, which opened the floodgates to nonwhite immigration. (Jewish