ELLA AREA:GOVERNANCE|ELLA THEME: INDIGENOUS AND ETHNIC MINORITY RIGHTS
ETHNIC MINORITY RIGHTS
The author o this article argues that the historic demand o indigenous peoples or government recognition within abroader concept o citizenship has been successully addressed, since many Latin American governments have nowdeveloped national rameworks that ormally recognise collective rights. Yet these achievements do not benet Aro-descendants who represent a large community in some Latin American countries. By exploring the challenges acedby Aro-descendants, in particular in relation to gaining ofcial recognition as an ethnic minority with particular humanrights, the article demonstrates that Aro-descendant organisations have played a key role in the emergence o a specicregime protecting their rights. Moreover, the activism o these organisations beore regional human rights courts hasresulted in new guidelines on government obligations towards ethnic and minority groups in terms o access to land,sel-government and human rights.
Full citation: Leonardo, R. 2008. The Human Rights Protection Regime or Aro-Descendants: The Case o Latin America and theCaribbean.
Revista de Relaciones Internacionales, Estrategias y Seguridad
In Latin America almost 30% o the population is Aro-descendant. Yet this community continues to live in conditionso poverty, suers discrimination and is oten excluded rom development projects and social initiatives because itsmembers are still largely invisible to governments and societies. This report represents the rst attempt to analyse thesituation o Arican descendants in Latin America, describing their social and economic conditions, their access to humanrights and the measures adopted by Latin American governments to support them. The Inter-American Commission onHuman Rights calls upon governments to implement measures to combat structural discrimination and racism in orderto ull their obligations to protect, deend and guarantee Aro-descendant rights, and especially to ensure access toeective judicial mechanisms. The Inter-American Commission also recommends coordinating eorts with civil societyorganisations (CSOs) in order to empower Arican descendants and to increase awareness o their rights.
Full citation: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. 2011.
The Situation o People o Arican Descent in the Americas
. OEASer.L/V/II.Doc.62. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Washington, DC.
This document compares 15 constitutions - rom Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador,Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela - to identiy how the rights o indigenouspeople have been ormally recognised in dierent contexts. This analysis oers the reader guidelines on how issuessuch as cultural diversity, sel-determination, political participation, access to land and natural resources, indigenouslanguages, intercultural public policy and customary indigenous law can be protected through national legal rameworks.
Full citation: Aguilar, G., Laosse, S., Rojas, H. and Steward, R. 2010. The Constitutional Recognition o Indigenous Peoples in LatinAmerica.
Pace International Review Online Companion