Look at the car parked there. Hownice the car is, but how poorly kept!
îª÷úø ’. áçûª´’ç*
é¬E áçûªÅÆæ-£æ «uçí¬ Öçîª’-èπ◊çô’-Ø√o®Ó!
poorly kept = badly maintained =
That's right. It's a very expensive car.The owner doesn't seen to care a bitabout its upkeep.
(Å´¤†’. î√™« êK-ü¿-®·†
éÌçîÁ ç èπÿú≈
†’í∫ ’Jç* °æöÀ d çîª’-èπ◊†oô’x™‰úø ’)
If I were the owner, I would keep itcleaner than I would keep my ownhome. You wouldn't see even aspeck of dust on it.
ßª’ï-´÷-E-ØÁ jûË, ü∆Eo Ø√ ÉçöÀéπçõ‰¨¡Ÿv¶µ ºçí¬
Öçîª’-èπ◊çö«. äéπ ü¿’´·t éπùç èπÿú≈ü∆EO’ü¿ éπE-°œ çîªü¿’ O’èπ◊)
(speck ofdust =
If I had enough money, I would firstbuy such a car.
¢Á ·ü¿ô Å™«çöÀ
Who wouldn't buy such a car, if theyhad the money?
OK.Leave the car alone. Are youattending Mahesh's birthday party thisweekend?
N≠æßª’ç Åô’çîª’.Ñ ¢√®√çûªç
Mahesh birthday party
leave alone =
Ç Ææ çí∫AÅô’çîª çúÕ)
I hear it's going to be a grand affair.But I'm afraid I can't make it. I am tak-ing mom to Hyderabad that day.
í¬ Öçúø-¶-ûª’çü¿E NØ√o†’.
é¬F ØË†’ ®√™‰†’. Ç®ÓV ´÷ Å´’t†’Â£j «ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛èπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o†’)
What about you, Jagdeesh?
If I didn't attend, he would be disap-pointed.
(ØË†’ ¢Á∞¡x-éπ§ÚûËÅûª†’ E®√-¨¡
If he had told me earlier, I would havepostponed mother's journey.
(Ø√èπ◊´·çüËîÁ°œ p Öçõ‰ØË†’ ´÷ Å´’t v°æßª÷-
ù«Eo ¢√®·ü∆ ¢ËÊÆ-¢√úÕ o.)
What are yougoing to do Naresh?
(†’¢Ë yç îËßª’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤, †Í®≠ˇ)
No idea as yet. If I have my interviewon saturday, I will come to the party onsunday.
(Éçé¬ àç îÁ°æ p-™‰†’. Ø√èπ◊ ¨¡E-¢√®Ωç
Öçõ‰, ØË†’ ÇC-¢√®Ωç ´≤ƒh†’)
If we present him something, he willbe happy. Let's buy the presentnow.
(´’†ç àüÁ jØ√ é¬†’-éÀÊÆh Åûª†’
ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø-û√úø’. É°æ¤púË àüÁjØ√éÌØËü∆l ç.)
That's right. Let's go. If we start now,we will be able to finish off before itgets late in the evening.
(Å´¤†’. ¢Á∞«l ç°æü¿çúÕ. ´’†ç É°æ¤púø ’ •ßª’-©’-üË-JûË®√vA
Ç©Ææ uç ÅßË ’u ™°æ© °æE ´·Tçîª’-éÓ´îª’a.)
If you had told me earlier, I wouldhave brought enough money. I don'thave the money now.
(O’®Ω ’ ´·çüËîÁ°æ ¤pçõ‰úø•’s ûÁîË a¢√-úÕE.. É°æ ¤púø ’ Ø√
ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s ™‰ü¿’.)
Don't worry. We have enough. Youcan pay later.
(°∂ æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰. ´÷ ü¿í∫ _-®Ω’-
Ø√o®·. †’´¤y ûª®√yûªÉ¢Ìyîª’a.)
Ok. Let's go.
(¢Á∞«l ç °æü¿çúÕ)
Åçõ‰v°æÆæ’hûª ç ï®Ω-í∫E N≠æ-ßª÷-©†’ îÁÊ°p
á™« Öçö«ßÁ ÷ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆.
sentences If clause,main clause verb combinations
™ îª÷¨»ç. ´’S} äéπ≤ƒJ í∫ ’®Ω’h îËÆæ’-èπ◊çü∆ç.
Main clause verb: would/ should/ could/ might.'If' clause verb: were/ past doing word (went,sung, took, gave, etc.)
Ééπ\úø´·êuçí¬ í∫´’-Eçî√-Lq† N≠æ-ßª÷©’ È®çúø ’:
1. Subject singular
verb, were2. Sentence
´÷ö«x-úËC É°æpöÀ N≠æ-ßª’-¢Á’iØ√,
verb, 'if' clause
past doing word.
Ñ È®çúø ’
á°æ ¤púø ÷ í∫’®Ω’hçîª’-éÓ¢√L. ÅçûË-
would, should,could, might.
ÉçéÓ N≠æßª’ç: v°æÆæ’hûª ç ï®Ω-í∫E N≠æ-ßª÷-©ØËÉC
îÁ°æ ¤hçC. (ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ´’†éÃ¢√úø ’éπ ™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE
ÉEo ñ«ví∫-ûª h©’)
If you ate that kind of food, you would ask forit again and again =
†’´y™«çöÀ¶µ ï†ç É°æ ¤púø ’
A†ôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË(AØËÅ´é¬¨¡ç ™‰ü¿’), ´’Sx
´’SxÅüËé¬¢√-©çö«´¤. (†’´¤y A†-ô´‚ ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’
– ´’Sx´’Sxé¬¢√-©†-ô´‚ ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’)
'if clause' verb 'ate' pasttense
Å®·-†-°æ p-öÀéÃÉ°æpöÀN≠æ-ßª÷ØË o îÁ°æ ¤hçC.
If I were a mouse, the cat would eat me. =
ØË†’ á©’éπØÁ jûËÉ°æ ¤púø ’ (ØËØÁ-©’éπ Å´†’ í∫ü∆?) °œLx
(Note the use of were with thesingular subject 'I')
If he were here, I could consult him.
Åûª-E-°æ ¤púø ’
Ééπ\úøÖçõ‰, ØË†-ûªEo Ææçv°æ-Cçîª-í∫-©†’/ ´îª’a.
(Åûª-E-éπ\úøÉ°æ ¤púø ’ ™‰úø ’)
Now look at the following sentences fromthe dialogue between Ramesh, Naresh andJagdeesh:1)
If I were the owner, I would keep it cleanerthan ..., you wouldn't see a speck of dust onit.
(ØËE-°æ ¤púø ’ ü∆E
ØÁ jûË, ü∆Eo ´÷ ÉçöÀ-éπçõ‰
†’´¤y ü∆E-O’ü¿ äéπ ü¿’´·t
éπùçèπÿú≈ îª÷úø´¤. é¬F ØË†’ ü∆E
If I had enough money, I would buy such acar =
Ø√ ü¿í∫ _®ΩÉ°æ ¤púø ’ î√L-†çûªúø•’sçõ‰(é¬E
Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω-™‰ü¿’), ØË†’ ¢Á ·ü¿öÀ Å™«çöÀ
Who wouldn't buy such a car, if they hadenough money? =
Åçûª úø•’s Öçõ‰(É°æ ¤púø ’
If I didn't attend, he would be unhappy =
ØË†’¢Á∞¡x-éπ§ÚûË(¢Á∞«h†’) Åûª†’ E®√-¨¡°æ-ú≈húø ’.
(í∫´’-Eçîª çúÕ– ÉC
if clauseverb - did attend = past tense)
improbable pres-ent situations -
îÁ°œp† N≠æ-ßª÷-™‰O èπÿú≈ v°æÆæ’hûª ç
(In the present)
ïJÍí Å´-é¬¨¡ç ™‰ü¿’.
If wishes were horses, beggars would ride
=éÓJ-éπ™‰í∫’v®√-™„ jûË, ´·≠œ d-¢√∞¡Ÿx≤ƒyK îË≤ƒh®Ω’ – éÓJ-éπ©’
í∫ ’v®√-©ßË ’u Å´é¬¨¡ç ™‰ü¿’.
(were.. would ride)
¢√úø ’ îªü¿-´ôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË(é¬E îªü¿-´úø ’), éπ*a
Å´¤-û√úø ’ =
If he studied well, hewould pass. (studied.. would pass)
Åçü¿®Ω÷ °æ†’o©’ Æævéπ´’çí¬ îÁLxÊÆh (ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’ éπü∆?)
¶µ «®Ω-ûªüË¨¡ç Ææç°æ†oçí¬ Öçúøí∫©ü¿’.
If everyone paid taxes properly, India couldbe rich (paid.. could be)
What would your father think, if he saw youhere? =
É°æ ¤púø ’ O’ Ø√†o Ééπ\úø-E-†’o îª÷úøôç Åçô÷
ïJ-TûË, Çßª’† à´’-†’-èπ◊çö«úø ’?– (Çßª’† îª÷ÊÆ
†’Ny-°æ ¤púø’ ´·êu-´’çvAí¬ Öçõ‰, ¢Á ·ôd-¢Á ·-ü¿ô àç
If you were the CM, what wouldyou do first?
Thank God he isn't here. If he were here, hewould know our secret =
´’ç*ü¿-®·çC, Öçõ‰´’† ®Ω£æ «Ææ uç ¢√úÕéÀûÁ©’-
(were.. would know)If I were you -
ØËØË†’´y-®·ûË– ÉC î√™«
improbable pres-ent express
i)probable present, ii)imaginary past.
OöÀE í∫’Jç* Éçûª-èπ◊´·çü¿’ N¨¡ü¿çí¬ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç
éπ∫ü∆. Å®·Ø√ ´’®Ìéπ\-≤ƒJ îª÷ü∆l ç.
v°æÆæ’hûª ç ïJÍí Å´é¬¨¡ç Ö†o Ææ çü¿-®√s¥-©†’ îÁ°æ ¤-ûª’çC.
Look at the following sentences from thedialogue at the beginning of the lesson.1)
If I have my interview on saturday, I willcome.
í∫-†’éπ ¨¡E-¢√®Ω ç Å®·ûËØË†’
éÀ´≤ƒh†’.)ÉC ïJÍí Å´é¬¨¡ç ÖçC.
¨¡E-¢√®ΩçÖçúø-´îª’a, Å°æ ¤púø ’ ØË†’
If we present him something, he will behappy
´’†ç é¬†’- Íé-üÁ jØ√ ÉÊÆh ¢√úø ’ Ææ çûÓ≠œ-≤ƒhúø’.
ÉC ≤ƒüµ ¿u¢Ë ’ é¬´îª’a.Ñ 2
sentences talk of a situation probable
in the present or in the nearfuture.
If he knows this, he will feel happy =
ÉC Åûª-úÕéÀûÁLÊÆh, Åûª†’ Ææ çûÓ≠œ-≤ƒhúø ’.
If you walk a little faster, you can catch thetrain =
é¬Ææ h ûª y®Ωí¬ †úÕÊÆh
In the sentences above, Main clause verb -will/ shall/ can/ may. If clause verb - am/ is/ are/ RDWs (go, goes, etc) and other presentforms.
If he talks to us, we shall be happy
If she comes here, I can help her
If they write to him, they may get some infor-mation =
Åûª-EéÀ®√ÊÆh (Öûª h®Ωç) ¢√∞Ïx- Íé-üÁ jØ√ Ææ´÷-
î√®Ω ç ®√´îª’a.É´Fo
É°æ ¤púø ’
sentencesfrom the dialogue
If he had told me earlier, I would have post-poned my journey =
Åûª†’ ´·çüËîÁ°œ p Öçõ‰
v°æßª÷ùç ¢√®·ü∆ ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊ØË-¢√-úÕØË. (È®çúø ÷ ï®Ω-í∫-
If you had told me earlier, I would havebrought enough money =
O’®Ω’ ´·çüËîÁ°œ p
Öçõ‰, î√L-†çûªúø•’s ûÁîË a¢√-úÕØË. (È®çúø ÷ ï®Ω-í∫-
™‰ü¿’ – í∫ûª ç™).
á°æ ¤púø ÷
Mainclause - would have been/ should havebeen/ could have been/ might have beenORwould have + pp (past participle)/ shouldhave + pp/ could have + pp/ might have + pp
If she had been here yesterday, he wouldhave talked to her =
Åûª†’ Ç¢Á’ûÓ ´÷ö«x-úË-¢√úË(È®çúø ÷ í∫ûª ç™ ï®Ω-í∫-
If they had taken him to the doctor, he wouldhave been alive.
ü¿í∫ _-®Ωèπ◊ BÆœ-Èé-Rx-†-ôx-®·ûË, Åûª†’
ÉO Ñ ´‚úø ’
If he studies well, he will pass =
Å´¤-û√úø ’ (ïJÍí Å´é¬¨¡ç ÖçC) é¬•öÀ d
If he studied well, he would pass =
¢√úø ’ É°æ ¤púø ’
îªü¿-´ôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË,
Å´¤-û√úø ’. (È®çúø ÷
É°æ ¤púø ’ ï®Ω-í∫´¤ é¬•öÀ d)
If he had studied well, he would have passed
(í∫ûª ç™) ¢√úø ’ ¶«í¬ îªC´¤çõ‰,
Åßª ·uçúË¢√úø’.(È®çúø ÷ í∫ûª ç™ï®Ωí∫™‰ü¿’) é¬•öÀ d
PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING ALOUD IN ENGLISH
E†o ØË†’ ÆœE-´÷-Èé∞«x. †’´¤y Éçöx
Öçúø ’çõ‰E†’o BÆæ ’Èé∞Ïxü∆ØË o.
E†o ØË†’ Å´’tûÓ
èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x†’. ¢Á∞¡x-éπ
§ÚûË, ØË†’ O’ ÉçöÀéÀ´*a E†’o BÆæ’-Èé-∞Ïx-ü∆Eo.
´÷ Å†oûÓ. †’´¤y ´ÊÆh Ñ ¨¡E-¢√®Ω ç ØËØ√
Ø√èπ◊ °æK-éπ~-©’-Ø√o®·. °æK-éπ~©’ ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ®√´ö«EéÀ
Æœü¿l ¥¢Ë ’.
Ø√èπ◊ç-õ‰í¬ îËßª’-ö«-EéÀ. Ø√
land phone out of order.
Å®·ûËØË†’ E†’o éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çö«™‰.
I went to a movie yesterday. If you hadbeen at home I would have taken you.
I went shopping with mom. If I had notgone, I would have come to your placeand taken you to the movie. Who didyou go with?
With my brother. If you are coming, I willsee it again this saturday.
I have exams. If I had no exams, I wouldbe ready to come.
Phone me and let me know.
If I were on Phone, I would call you. I'velost my cell. Our land phone is out oforder
I will meet you then.
If you were the CM...
-Ççí∫x- ¶µ «- ≠æ-ù
Ççí∫ x- ¶µ «- ≠æ-ù
- §ƒûª- ¢√u≤ƒ©éÓÆæç - éÀ x é˙-îË -ßª ’ç-úÕ ..
Ñ-Ø√úø ’ Â £j«ü¿ ®√¶«ü˛-≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 5 -W-Ø˛2006