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Spoken English 166 to 175

Spoken English 166 to 175

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Published by sv swamy
Spoken English 166 to 175
Spoken English 166 to 175

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Published by: sv swamy on May 04, 2009
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03/03/2011

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Ramesh:
Look at the car parked there. Hownice the car is, but how poorly kept!
(Åéπ\-ú≈°œ
car
îª÷úø ’. áçûª´’ç*
car,
é¬E áçûªÅÆæ-£æ «uçí¬ Öç-èπ◊çô’-Ø√o®Ó!
poorly kept = badly maintained =
ÆæJí¬ Öç-éÓ´ô癉ü¿’)
Naresh:
That's right. It's a very expensive car.The owner doesn't seen to care a bitabout its upkeep.
(Å´¤†’. î√™« êK-ü¿-®·†
car.
ü∆E
owner
éÌçîÁ ç èπÿú≈
car
†’í∫ ’Jç* °æöÀ  d ç-èπ◊†oô’x™‰úø ’)
Jagdeesh:
If I were the owner, I would keep itcleaner than I would keep my ownhome. You wouldn't see even aspeck of dust on it.
(ØËØËÇ
car
ߪ’ï-´÷-E-ØÁ  jûË, ü∆Eo Ø√ ÉçöÀéπçõ‰¨¡Ÿv¶µ ºçí¬ Öç-èπ◊çö«. äéπ ü¿’´·t éπùç èπÿú≈ü∆EO’ü¿ éπE-°œ çîªü¿’ O’èπ◊)
(speck ofdust =
ü¿’´·t-éπùç)
Ramesh:
If I had enough money, I would firstbuy such a car.
(Ø√Íé î√L-†çûªúø•’sçõ‰, ¢Á ·ü¿ô Å™«çöÀ
car
éÌçö«)
Jagdeesh:
Who wouldn't buy such a car, if theyhad the money?
(úø•’sçõ‰Å™«çöÀ
car
á´®Ω’ é̆®Ω’?)
Naresh:
OK.Leave the car alone. Are youattending Mahesh's birthday party thisweekend?
(Ææ Í®
car
N≠æߪ’ç Åô’ç.Ñ ¢√®√çûªç
Mahesh birthday party
éÀO’®ÌÆæ ’h-Ø√o®√?
leave alone =
Ç Ææ çí∫AÅô’ççúÕ)
Ramesh:
I hear it's going to be a grand affair.But I'm afraid I can't make it. I am tak-ing mom to Hyderabad that day.
(î√™«
grand
í¬ Öçúø-¶-ûª’çü¿E NØ√o†’. é¬F ؈’ ®√™‰†’. Ç®ÓV ´÷ Å´’t†’£j «ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛èπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o†’)
Naresh:
What about you, Jagdeesh?
Jagdeesh:
If I didn't attend, he would be disap-pointed.
(؈’ ¢Á∞¡x-éπ§ÚûËÅûª†’ E®√-¨¡ °æ-úø-û√úø ’)
Ramesh:
If he had told me earlier, I would havepostponed mother's journey.
(Ø√èπ◊´·çüËîÁ°œ p Öçõ‰Øˆ’ ´÷ Å´’t v°æߪ÷- ù«Eo ¢√®·ü∆ ¢ËÊÆ-¢√úÕ o.)
What are yougoing to do Naresh?
(†’¢Ë yç îËߪ’-¶-ûª’-Ø√o´¤, †Í®≠ˇ)
Naresh:
No idea as yet. If I have my interviewon saturday, I will come to the party onsunday.
(Éçé¬ àç îÁ°æ p-™‰†’. Ø√èπ◊ ¨¡E-¢√®Ωç
interview
Öçõ‰, ؈’ ÇC-¢√®Ωç ´≤ƒh†’)
Jagdeesh:
If we present him something, he willbe happy. Let's buy the presentnow.
(´’†ç àüÁ  jØ√ 鬆’-éÀÊÆh Åûª†’ ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø-û√úø’. É°æ¤púË àüÁjØ√éÌØËü∆l ç.)
Naresh:
That's right. Let's go. If we start now,we will be able to finish off before itgets late in the evening.
(Å´¤†’. ¢Á∞«l ç°æü¿çúÕ. ´’†ç É°æ¤púø ’ •ßª’-©’-üË-JûË®√vA Ç©Ææ uç ÅßË ’u ™°æ© °æE ´·Tç-éӴa.)
Ramesh:
If you had told me earlier, I wouldhave brought enough money. I don'thave the money now.
(O’®Ω ’ ´·çüËîÁ°æ ¤pçõ‰úø•’s ûÁîË a¢√-úÕE.. É°æ ¤púø ’ Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’s ™‰ü¿’.)
Jagdeesh:
Don't worry. We have enough. Youcan pay later.
(°∂  æ®√y-™‰-ü¿’™‰. ´÷ ü¿í∫  _-®Ω’- Ø√o®·. †’´¤y ûª®√yûªÉ¢Ìya.)
All:
Ok. Let's go.
(¢Á∞«l ç °æü¿çúÕ) éÀ çü¿öÀ
lesson
™
Improbable present
Åçõ‰v°æÆæ’hûª ç ï®Ω-í∫E N≠æ-ߪ÷-©†’ îÁÊ°p
clauses
™
verbs
ᙫ Öçö«ßÁ ÷ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆.
Improbablepresent situation
ûÁLÊ°
sentences If clause,main clause verb combinations
ÖçúËNüµ  ¿ç
lastlesson
™ îª÷¨»ç. ´’S} äéπ≤ƒJ í∫ ’®Ω’h îËÆæ’-èπ◊çü∆ç.
Main clause verb: would/ should/ could/ might.'If' clause verb: were/ past doing word (went,sung, took, gave, etc.)
Ééπ\úø´·êuçí¬ í∫´’-Eçî√-Lq† N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ È®çúø ’:
1. Subject singular
Å®·ûË,
verb, were2. Sentence
´÷ö«x-úËC É°æpöÀ N≠æ-ߪ’-¢Á’iØ√,
verb, 'if' clause
™
past doing word.
Ñ È®çúø ’
points,
á°æ ¤púø ÷ í∫’®Ω’hç-éÓ¢√L. ÅçûË- é¬èπ◊çú≈,
main clause
™
would, should,could, might.
ÉçéÓ N≠æߪ’ç: v°æÆæ’hûª ç ï®Ω-í∫E N≠æ-ߪ÷-©ØËÉC îÁ°æ ¤hçC. (ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ´’†éâ√úø ’é𠙉ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE ÉEo ñ«ví∫-ûª  h©’)
a)
If you ate that kind of food, you would ask forit again and again =
†’´y™«çöÀ¶µ ï†ç É°æ ¤púø ’ A†ôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË(AØËŴ鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’), ´’Sx ´’SxÅüË鬢√-©çö«´¤. (†’´¤y A†-ô´‚ ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’ – ´’Sx´’Sx鬢√-©†-ô´‚ ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’) Ñ
sentence
™
'if clause' verb 'ate' pasttense
Å®·-†-°æ p-öÀéÃÉ°æpöÀN≠æ-ߪ÷ØË o îÁ°æ ¤hçC.
b)
If I were a mouse, the cat would eat me. =
؈’ á©’éπØÁ  jûËÉ°æ ¤púø ’ (ØËØÁ-©’éπ Å´†’ í∫ü∆?) °œLx ††’o Açô’çC.
(Note the use of were with thesingular subject 'I')
c)
If he were here, I could consult him.
Åûª-E-°æ ¤púø ’ Ééπ\úøÖçõ‰, ؈-ûªEo Ææçv°æ-Cçîª-í∫-©†’/ ´îª’a. (Åûª-E-éπ\úøÉ°æ ¤púø ’ ™‰úø ’)
Now look at the following sentences fromthe dialogue between Ramesh, Naresh andJagdeesh:1)
If I were the owner, I would keep it cleanerthan ..., you wouldn't see a speck of dust onit.
(ØËE-°æ ¤púø ’ ü∆E
owner
ØÁ  jûË, ü∆Eo ´÷ ÉçöÀ-éπçõ‰ ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬ Öçû√–
†’´¤y ü∆E-O’ü¿ äéπ ü¿’´·t
éπùçèπÿú≈ îª÷úø´¤. é¬F ؈’ ü∆E
owner
†’ 鬆’.)
2)
If I had enough money, I would buy such acar =
Ø√ ü¿í∫  _®ΩÉ°æ ¤púø ’ î√L-†çûªúø•’sçõ‰(é¬E Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω-™‰ü¿’), ؈’ ¢Á ·ü¿öÀ Å™«çöÀ 
car
éÌçö«.
3)
Who wouldn't buy such a car, if they hadenough money? =
Åçûª úø•’s Öçõ‰(É°æ ¤púø ’ ™‰ü¿’) á´®Ω-™«çöÀ 
car
é̆®Ω ’?
4)
If I didn't attend, he would be unhappy =
؈’¢Á∞¡x-éπ§ÚûË(¢Á∞«h†’) Åûª†’ E®√-¨¡°æ-ú≈húø ’. (í∫´’-EççúÕÉC
future -
Å®·Ø√,
if clauseverb - did attend = past tense)
Ñ Â°j 
sentences
ÅFo èπÿú≈
improbable pres-ent situations -
Åçõ‰¢√öÀ™xE
'if' clauses
™
îÁ°œp† N≠æ-ߪ÷-™‰O èπÿú≈ v°æÆæ’hûª ç
(In the present)
ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’.
If clause
N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ïJ-TûË, éπLÍí °æ®Ωu-´-≤ƒ-†¢Ë’,
Main clause
™ N≠æ-ߪ÷©’.
´’J-éÌEo 
examples
îª÷úø çúÕ.
a)
If wishes were horses, beggars would ride
=éÓJ-éπ™‰í∫’v®√-™„  jûË, ´·≠œ  d-¢√∞¡Ÿx≤ƒyK îË≤ƒh®Ω’ – éÓJ-éπ©’ í∫ ’v®√-©ßË ’u Ŵ鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’.
(were.. would ride)
b)
¢√úø ’ îªü¿-´ôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË(é¬E îªü¿-´úø ’), éπ*a  ûª çí¬
pass
Å´¤-û√úø ’ =
If he studied well, hewould pass. (studied.. would pass)
c)
Åçü¿®Ω÷ °æ†’o©’ Æævéπ´’çí¬ îÁLxÊÆh (ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’ éπü∆?) ¶µ «®Ω-ûªü˨¡ç Ææç°æ†oçí¬ Öçúøí∫©ü¿’.
If everyone paid taxes properly, India couldbe rich (paid.. could be)
d)
What would your father think, if he saw youhere? =
É°æ ¤púø ’ O’ Ø√†o Ééπ\úø-E-†’o îª÷úøôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË, Çߪ’† à´’-†’-èπ◊çö«úø ’?– (Çߪ’† îª÷ÊÆ Å´é¬¨¡ç™‰ü¿’)
(saw.. would)
e)
†’Ny-°æ ¤púø’ ´·êu-´’çvAí¬ Öçõ‰, ¢Á ·ôd-¢Á ·-ü¿ô àç îË≤ƒh´¤? =
If you were the CM, what wouldyou do first?
f)
Thank God he isn't here. If he were here, hewould know our secret =
¢√úÕ-éπ\úø™‰éπ§Ú-´ôç ´’ç*ü¿-®·çC, Öçõ‰´’† ®Ω£æ «Ææ uç ¢√úÕéÀûÁ©’- Ææ ’hçC.
(were.. would know)If I were you -
ØË؈’´y-®·ûË– ÉC î√™«
com-mon
í¬ ¢√úË 
expres-sion -
O’®Ω’ Éûª-®Ω’©
conversation
™ í∫´’-EçîËÖçö«®Ω’.ÉO,
improbable pres-ent express
îËÊÆ
sen-tences.
N’í∫-û√-È®çúø ’
i)probable present, ii)imaginary past.
OöÀE í∫’Jç* Éçûª-èπ◊´·çü¿’ N¨¡ü¿çí¬ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπ∫ü∆. Å®·Ø√ ´’®Ìéπ\-≤ƒJ îª÷ü∆l ç.
Probable present:
v°æÆæ’hûª ç ïJÍí Ŵ鬨¡ç Ö†o Ææ çü¿-®√s¥-©†’ îÁ°æ ¤-ûª’çC.
Look at the following sentences from thedialogue at the beginning of the lesson.1)
If I have my interview on saturday, I willcome.
(Ø√
interview
í∫-†’éπ ¨¡E-¢√®Ω ç Å®·ûË؈’
party
éÀ´≤ƒh†’.)ÉC ïJÍí Ŵ鬨¡ç ÖçC.
Interview
¨¡E-¢√®ΩçÖçúø-´îª’a, Å°æ ¤púø ’ ؈’
sunday party
éÀ®√´îª’a.
2)
If we present him something, he will behappy
´’†ç 鬆’- Íé-üÁ  jØ√ ÉÊÆh ¢√úø ’ Ææ çûÓ≠œ-≤ƒhúø’. ÉC ≤ƒüµ  ¿u¢Ë ’ 鬴a.Ñ 2
sentences talk of a situation probable
(ï®Ω-í∫-´îª’a)
in the present or in the nearfuture.
a)
If he knows this, he will feel happy =
ÉC Åûª-úÕéÀûÁLÊÆh, Åûª†’ Ææ çûÓ≠œ-≤ƒhúø ’.
b)
If you walk a little faster, you can catch thetrain =
é¬Ææ  h ûª y®Ωí¬ †úÕÊÆh
train
Åçü¿’-éÓí∫-©´¤.
(probable =
ï®Ω-í∫-´îª’a)
In the sentences above, Main clause verb -will/ shall/ can/ may. If clause verb - am/ is/ are/ RDWs (go, goes, etc) and other presentforms.
a)
If he talks to us, we shall be happy
b)
If she comes here, I can help her
c)
If they write to him, they may get some infor-mation =
Åûª-EéÀ®√ÊÆh (Öûª  h®Ωç) ¢√∞Ïx- Íé-üÁ  jØ√ Ææ´÷- î√®Ω ç ®√´îª’a.É´Fo 
probable present.
II.
É°æ ¤púø ’
Imaginary past
ûÁLÊ° Ñ
sentencesfrom the dialogue
îª÷úø çúÕ.
1)
If he had told me earlier, I would have post-poned my journey =
Åûª†’ ´·çüËîÁ°œ p Öçõ‰ v°æߪ÷ùç ¢√®·ü∆ ¢ËÆæ’-èπ◊ØË-¢√-úÕØË. (È®çúø ÷ ï®Ω-í∫- ™‰ü¿’ –
past
™)
2)
If you had told me earlier, I would havebrought enough money =
O’®Ω’ ´·çüËîÁ°œ p Öçõ‰, î√L-†çûªúø•’s ûÁîË a¢√-úÕØË. (È®çúø ÷ ï®Ω-í∫- ™‰ü¿’ – í∫ûª ç™). Ñ
situation
á°æ ¤púø ÷
past.
Éçü¿’™
verb combination
îª÷úø çúÕ.
Mainclause - would have been/ should havebeen/ could have been/ might have beenORwould have + pp (past participle)/ shouldhave + pp/ could have + pp/ might have + pp
a)
If she had been here yesterday, he wouldhave talked to her =
Ç¢Á’ EEo-éπ\úøÖ†o-ôx-®·ûË, Åûª†’ Ç¢Á’ûÓ ´÷ö«x-úË-¢√úË(È®çúø ÷ í∫ûª ç™ ï®Ω-í∫- ™‰ü¿’)
b)
If they had taken him to the doctor, he wouldhave been alive.
(¢√∞¡x-ûªEo 
doctor
ü¿í∫  _-®Ωèπ◊ BÆœ-Èé-Rx-†-ôx-®·ûË, Åûª†’ •AéÀÖçúË-¢√úø ’) ÉO Ñ ´‚úø ’
situations.
a)
If he studies well, he will pass =
¶«í¬ îªC-NûË
pass
Å´¤-û√úø ’ (ïJÍí Ŵ鬨¡ç ÖçC) 鬕öÀ  d
Probable present.
b)
If he studied well, he would pass =
¢√úø ’ É°æ ¤púø ’ îªü¿-´ôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË,
pass
Å´¤-û√úø ’. (È®çúø ÷ É°æ ¤púø ’ ï®Ω-í∫´¤ 鬕öÀ  d)
Improbable present.
c)
If he had studied well, he would have passed
(í∫ûª ç™) ¢√úø ’ ¶«í¬ îªC´¤çõ‰,
pass
Åߪ ·uçúË¢√úø’.(È®çúø ÷ í∫ûª ç™ï®Ωí∫™‰ü¿’) 鬕öÀ  d 
Imaginary past.
PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING ALOUD IN ENGLISH
®Ω´’:
Hi Suma,
E†o ؈’ ÆœE-´÷-Èé∞«x. †’´¤y Éçöx Öçúø ’çõ‰E†’o BÆæ ’Èé∞Ïxü∆ØË o.
Ææ ’--´’:
E†o ؈’ Å´’tûÓ
shopping
èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x†’. ¢Á∞¡x-éπ §ÚûË, ؈’ O’ ÉçöÀéÀ´*a E†’o BÆæ’-Èé-∞Ïx-ü∆Eo. ÉçûªéÃá´JûÓ ¢Á∞«x´¤?
®Ω´’:
´÷ ņoûÓ. †’´¤y ´ÊÆh Ñ ¨¡E-¢√®Ω ç ØËØ√ -Æœ-E´÷ ´’Sxîª÷≤ƒh.
Ææ ’--´’:
Ø√èπ◊ °æK-éπ~-©’-Ø√o®·. °æK-éπ~©’ ™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ®√´ö«EéÀ Æœü¿l ¥¢Ë ’.
®Ω´’:
Å®·ûËà N≠æ-ߪ’´‚
phone
-îÁ®·u.
Ææ ’--´’:
Phone
Ø√èπ◊ç-õ‰í¬ îËߪ’-ö«-EéÀ. Ø√
cell
§Ú®·çC. ´÷
land phone out of order.
®Ω´’:
Å®·ûË؈’ E†’o éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çö«™‰.
ANSWERRama:
I went to a movie yesterday. If you hadbeen at home I would have taken you.
Suma:
I went shopping with mom. If I had notgone, I would have come to your placeand taken you to the movie. Who didyou go with?
Rama:
With my brother. If you are coming, I willsee it again this saturday.
Suma:
I have exams. If I had no exams, I wouldbe ready to come.
Rama:
Phone me and let me know.
Suma:
If I were on Phone, I would call you. I'velost my cell. Our land phone is out oforder
Rama:
I will meet you then.
If you were the CM...
-Ççí∫x- ¶µ  «- ≠æ-ù
166
Ççí∫    x- ¶µ  «- ≠æ-ù
M. SURESAN
Spoken English
- §ƒûª- ¢√u≤ƒ©éÓÆæç - éÀ   x é˙-îË -ߪ ’ç-úÕ ..
URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II
 Ñ-Ø√úø ’    £j«ü¿ ®«ü˛-≤Ú-´’¢√®Ωç 5 -W-Ø˛2006
 
Ðû¦è[ª
-
Pratap:
The top hero on the telugu screenand our favourite is in town for thecelebration to honour him and wehave this rotten class to attend.Iwish I were at the theatre.
(êŸì ú£ê¦\-ôÁ-êŸq÷Ùöº ð§ö¹_-ì-è¯EÚ¨ êµõªÞœ ªêµô¢ Ñ꟠ h-÷ª-ì-åªè[ª, ÷ªì ÍGÅ-÷«ì-ì-åªè[« ÒüÉÁxÑû¦oè[ª. ÷ªì« Ïí£ ±pè[ª Ð í£EÚ¨ ÷«Lì Ú¥xúÃÚ¨ îµü‹xL. û¦¸Ú ÎCÇó¶ª-åôÂöº ÑÙè¯õE-í‡-þ¼hÙC.)
Rotten =
÷³J-Tð¼-ô³ìÐ í£ë¯Eo Óí£±pè[« Aådè¯EÚ¨ Ñí£-óµ«Tþ§hô¢ª.
Sundeep:
I wish too, we didn't have thisclass now.I'd rather we were inhis presence than in this boringclass.
(û¦ÚÛª ÚÛ«è¯ Ð Ú¥xúÃÏí£±pè[ª ö¶ÚÛ-ð¼ê¶ò°ÞœªÙåªÙë]E-í‡-þ¼hÙC. Ð Nú£ªÞœ ª í£±æ¨dÙà¶Ú¥xúà ÚÛ û¦o ΠôÁ ë]Þœ_ô¢ÑÙç¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙåªÙëÁ?)
Pratap:
This is the second time for us tomiss the chance of meeting him.When he came here last october forthe silver jubilee of his movie we hadexams.How I wish we hadn't hadthose exams.We could have seenhim at least then.
(ÍêŸEo àŸ «›ú Í÷Ú¥øŒÙ ÚÁöºp-÷è[Ù ÷ªìÚÛªÏC ·ôÙèÁ-þ§J. ÞœêŸ ÍÚÁd-ñ-ôÂöº ÎóŸ ªì #vêŸÙ ô¢á-êÁ-êŸq÷Ù áJ-Tì-í£±pè[ª ÷ªìÚÛª í£K-¤Ûõª. í£K-¤Ûõª ö¶ÚÛ-ð¼ê¶ ò°ÞœªÙè¶C. Íí£±pè[ªÚÛ«è¯ ÎóŸ ª-ììª àŸ «è[-ö¶-ÚÛ-ð¼óŸ «Ù.)
Sundeep:
All this because of this college.It'svery strict about exams and atten-dance.We can't cut even a singleclass.I wish I hadn't joined thiscollege.But for my father, I would-n't have joined here.
(ÍÙê¦ Ð Ú¥ö¶@ ÷ö¶x! í£K-¤Ûõª,áô¢ªö°Ùæ¨Nù£-óŸ «öºx OüŒ‰x à¦ö° ÚÛJÈ- ìÙÞ¥ ÑÙæ°ô¢ ª. ÖÚÛ\ Ú¥xúÃÓÞ•_-åd-è¯EÚ¨ ö¶ë]ª. ÏÚÛ\è[ à¶ô¢-ÚÛªÙè¯ ÑÙç¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙè¶ëÁ! ÷« û¦ìo Þœ ªJÙ# Ú¥ÚÛ-ð¼ê¶û¶ìª ÏÚÛ\è[ මôî¦-è…E Ú¥ë]ª.)
Pratap:
How I wish today were a holiday! Toofew holidays in this college.Lecturers rarely go on leave here.No class is let free.
(ÐôÁV šúõîµjê¶ ÓÙêŸ-ò°Þœ ªÙè¶C. Ð Ú¥ö¶-@öº šúõ÷±õª ÷ªK êŸÚÛª\÷. öµÚÛ  a-ô¢ô¢ ªx à¦ö°Íô¢ ª-ë]ªÞ¥ šúõ÷± šíè[-ê¦ô¢ ª. ÖÚÛ\ Ú¥xúÃÚÛ«è¯ ÷ë]-õô¢ ª.)
Sundeep:
We should have thought of all thisbefore joining this college.
(Ï÷Fo ÷ªìÙ Ú¥ö¶-@öº à¶ô¢ÚÛ ÷³Ùë¶ Îöº#Ùà¦L.)
Pratap:
OK.OK.Now let's hope that our herowill be here in the evening.I onlywish his programme were delayed.We could then see him towards theend of his celebrations.
(÷ªì ôÁ þ§óŸ ªÙvêŸÙ ÷ô¢ÚÛª ÑÙæ°è[EÎPë¯lÙ. Ú¥ô¢u-vÚÛ÷ªÙ Îõú£uÙ Íô³ê¶ò°Þœ ªÙè[ª. #÷ôÁx Íô³û¦ ÎóŸ ªEo àŸ «›ú Í÷Ú¥øŒÙ ÑÙåªÙC.)
Sundeep:
Let's hope so.I wish I were ratherat the function than here.Butthere is no helping being in theclass.
(Íö°¸Þ ÎPë¯lÙ. ÏÚÛ\-è…-ÚÛû¦o Î íÆ£ÙÚÛ   {-ûËÂöº ÑÙç¶ ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC. Ú¥F Ú¥xúÃöºÑÙè[ÚÛ êŸí£pë]ª.)
No helping =
êŸí£pë]ªÞœêŸ ·ôÙè[ª
lessons
öº
'If clauses'
öº
were(Singular Subjects
êÁ ÚÛ«è¯)/
Past DoingWords (came, gave, took, etc)
î¦è¶ú£Ùë]-ô¦sÄõªàŸ «ø‹Ù– Íí£±pè[ª ÷ªìÙ ÔÙ êµõª-ú£ª-ÚÛª-û¦o-÷ªÙ綖
'If clauses'
öº
were/ Past Doing Words
î¦è…ê¶ ví£ú£ªhêŸÙ áô¢-ÞœE (Íú£ÙòÅ¡÷Ù) Nù£óŸ «õìªêµLóŸª-â¶-þ§hô³.÷ªì
conversation correct
Þ¥ ÑÙè[è¯EÚ¨ ÏCà¦ö° ÷³ÜuÙ.
e.g.-
1)
If he werehere, he wouldn't allow this.
ÍêŸû¶ ÏÚÛ\è[ ÑÙç¶ (ÍêŸ-E-ÚÛ\è[ Ïí£ ±pè[ª ö¶è[ ª) ÏC áô¢Þœ-E-÷yè[ª (ÍêŸ-E-ÚÛ\è[ Ïí£±pè[ª ö¶è[ª Ú¥ñæ¨d ÏCáô¢ª-Þœ ª-êÁÙC).
- 'If Clause'
öº
he- singular,verb- were- plural.
2)
If I werethe Chief Minister, I would appointyou the finance minister.
û¶û¶ Ïí£±pè[ª ÷³Üu÷ªÙ-vAÞ¥ (Ïí£±pè[ª ÷³Üu÷ªÙvAÚ¥ë]ª) ÑÙç¶, Eìªo ÎJnÚÛ ÷ªÙvAÞ¥ EóŸ ª-Nª-þ§hìª.
3)
If he came herenow, his mother would behappy.
î¦è[ª Ïí£ ±pè[ª ÏÚÛ\è…Ú¨ ÷›úh (î¦è[ª Ïí£±pè[ªÏÚÛ\è[ÚÛª ô¦è[ª), î¦üŒx÷ªt ú£ÙêÁ-ù‡-ú£ªhÙC.(î¦è[ªô¦è[ª– î¦üŒx÷ªt ú£ÙêÁ-ù£ÙÞ¥ ö¶ë]ª).
4)
If she were here I could tell her of this.
Î ÏÚÛ\è[ ÑÙç¶ (Î Ïí£ ±pè[ª ÏÚÛ\è[ ö¶ë]ª), û¶FNù£óŸªÙ ÎÚÛª àµí‡p ÑÙè[÷àŸªa (Î ö¶ë]ª,ÎÚÛª û¶ìª àµí£p-ö¶ìª).Ïí£±pè[ª Ïö°
'If clause'
öº
were (singular sub- jects
êÁ ÚÛ«è¯)/
Past Doing Words
î¦è[åÙví£ú£ªh꟠٠ú£ÙòÅ¡÷Ù Ú¥E
(present improbable)
Nù£-óŸ«õìª êµLóŸ ª-â¶-þ§hô³.Ð
were (singular subjects
êÁ)/
Past DoingWords (gave, wrote etc)
ìª ÷ªJ-Ú•Eo ú£Ùë]-ô¦sÄöºxÚÛ  «è¯ î¦è[ê¦Ù. Î ú£Ùë]-ô¦sÄöºx
(If clause
ö¶ÚÛªÙè¯ÚÛ  «è¯) ÍN ví£ú£ªhêŸÙ áô¢-ÞœE Nù£-óŸ «õìª êµLóŸ ª-â¶- þ§hô³. Oæ¨E àŸ «è[Ùè…:
a)
I wish to bein the US.
(û¶ìª Í-J-Ú¥öº ÑÙè¯õìª-ÚÛªÙåª-û¦oìª/ ÚÁô¢ ª-ÚÛªÙåª-û¦oìª.)
b)
He wishes to bea collector.
(ÍêŸìª ÚÛöµ-ÚÛd-ôÂÞ¥ ÑÙè¯õìª-ÚÛªÙåª-û¦oè[ª/ ÚÁô¢ ª-ÚÛªÙ-åª-û¦oè[ ª.)
Compare the sentences above with the fol-lowing:
c)
I wish (that) I werein the US.
d)
He wishes (that) he werea collector.sentences (c), (d)
õöº
I, he, singular
Íô³-ì-í£p-æ¨Ú©
'were'
ô¦÷åÙ Þœ÷ª-EÙàŸÙè…– Ð ú£Ùë]-ô¢sÄÙöºÏC êŸí£±p Ú¥ë]ª.
1)
Compare sentences (a) and (c):
a)
I wish to bein the US.
û¶ìª Í-J-Ú¥öº ÑÙè¯õE ÚÁJÚÛ. (ÏC û¦ ÚÁJÚÛ –ÏC áô¢-Þœ-÷àŸ ªa)– ÏÚÛ\è[
wishes
êŸô¦yêŸ
'to be'.
c)
I wish (that) I werein the US.
û¶ìª Ïí£ p-æ¨-Ú¨-í£±pè[ª (Ð ¤ÛéÙöº) Í-J-Ú¥öº ÑÙç¶ÓÙêŸ ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC. (Ïí£p-æ¨-ÚÛ-í£±pè[ª ‘û¶ìª’ Í-JÚ¥öº ÑÙè[è[Ù Íú£ÙòÅ¡÷Ù ÚÛë¯)– ÏÚÛ\è[
wish
êŸô¦yêŸ
'I were'.
2)
Compare sentences (b) and (d).
b)
He wishes to bea collector.
ÍêŸè[ ª ÚÛöµ-ÚÛdôÂÞ¥ ÑÙè¯L/ Íî¦y-õE ÚÁô¢ ª-ÚÛª-åª- û¦oè[ª. áJ¸Þ Í÷Ú¥øŒÙ ÑÙC (áô¢ ª-Þœ ª-꟠ªÙë]E àµí£pö¶Ù).– ÏÚÛ\è[
wishes
êŸô¦yêŸ
'to be'.
d)
He wishes (that) he werea collector.
ÍêŸè[ ª Ïí£p-æ¨-ÚÛ-í£±pè[ª, Ð ¤ÛéÙöº ÚÛöµ-ÚÛd-ôÂÞ¥ ÑÙç¶ÓÙêŸ ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙëÁ (Ô æ©àŸôÂÞ¥ûËÁ, ÏÙÚÁ Ô í£ë]-NöºûËÁÚ¥-ÚÛªÙè¯). Ïí£p-æ¨-Ú¨-í£±pè[ª ÍêŸè[ª ÚÛöµ-ÚÛdôÂÍ÷è[Ù Íú£ÙòÅ¡÷Ù.– ÏÚÛ\è[
wishes
êŸô¦yêŸ
he were.(c), (d)
öºx
were
î¦è[è[ Ù ÷ªì Bô¢E ÚÁJÚÛ êµLóŸ ª-â¶-›ú-åªxÞ¥ ÑÙC ÚÛë¯.
Jayaram:
What a beautiful building this is!Who lives in it?
(ÓÙêŸ ÍÙë]ÙÞ¥ ÑÙëÁ Ð GLfÙÞÂ! Ó÷ô¢ªÙæ°ô¢ ª ÏÙë]ªöº?)
Janakiram:
The forest officer.
(ÍåOø‹Ü ÍCÅ-Ú¥J)
Jayaram:
How I wish I werea forest officer!
(û¶ìª ÍåOø‹Ü ÍCÅ-Ú¥J Íô³ê¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙåªÙëÁ– Íí£±pè[ª û¶ì« Ïö°Ùæ¨òÅ¡÷ÙAöº ÑÙæ°ìª ÚÛë¯ Íû¶ Íô¢nÙêÁ– Ïí£±pè[ ªáóŸ ª-ô¦îª ÍåO-ø‹Ü ÍCÅ-Ú¥J Í÷è[ª ÚÛë¯!)ÏD
Singulars
êÁ
'were'
î¦è¶ ÏÙÚÁ ú£Ùë]ô¢sÄÙ.Ïö°Ùæ¨ ú£Ùë]-ô¢sÄÙöºû¶
Past Doing Word
ÚÛ  «è¯î¦è[ê¦Ù.
a)
I wish to travelin such a car.
Íö°Ùæ¨ Ú¥ô¢ ªöº ví£óŸ «éÙ à¶óŸ «õE û¦ ÚÁJÚÛ. – ÏÚÛ\è[
wish
êŸô¦yêŸ
to travel.
b)
I wish (that) I travelledis such a car.- travelled (Past Doing Word)
(Ïí£p-æ¨-Ú¨-í£±pè[ª) û¶ì-ö°Ùæ¨ Ú¥ô¢ªöº ví£óŸ «éÙ à¶ú£ªhÙè¯õE û¦ ÚÁJÚÛ/ ví£óŸ «é٠ඛúh ÓÙêŸ ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC! (Íú£ÙòÅ¡÷Ù).
c)
He wishes (that) he ownedsuch a house.
Íö°Ùæ¨ Ïõªx êŸìÚ© ÑÙç¶ (Ïí£p-æ¨-Ú¨-í£±pè[ª) ÓÙêŸò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC– ÍE Íìª-ÚÛªÙåª-û¦oè[ª.
d)
They wish (that) that they had a holidaytoday.
î¦üŒ‰x Ð ôÁV šúõîµ  jê¶ ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC Íìª-ÚÛªÙåª-û¦oô¢ª.
They wish (that) today werea holiday.
Íí£±p-è[-í£±pè[ª
I wish
ñë]ªõª,
'Oh'
êÁ ÚÛ«è¯
begin
à¶óŸª-÷àŸªa.
I wish I were at home now!Oh, I were at home now!
Ïí£±pè[ª û¶ìª ÏÙæºx ÑÙè¯LqÙC/ ÏÙæºx ÑÙç¶ ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC. (Ïí£±pè[ª ÏÙ·Ú-ÚÛ\èÁ Ñû¦oìª. ÍÚÛ\-è[ªÙè[è[ÙÏù£dÙ ö¶ë]ª)
Now look at the following sentences from thedialogue at the beginning of the lesson.
1)
I wish I wereat the theatre.
û¶ìª Ïí£±pè[ª CÇó¶ª-åôÂöº ÑÙç¶ ï£„ô³Þ¥ ÑÙåªÙC(Ú¥xúÃöº Ú¥ÚÛªÙè¯).
2)
I wish we didn'thave (past tense) the classnow.
Ð Ú¥xúà Ïí£±pè[ ª ö¶ÚÛ -ð¼ê¶ò°Þœ ªÙè¶C (÷ªìÙ CÇó¶ª-åôÂÚÛª îµü™x-î¦üŒxÙ)
3)
I wish we hadn't hadthe exams.
÷ªìÚÛª Íí£±pè[ª
(in thepast)
í£K-¤Ûõª ö¶ÚÛ  ªÙè¯ÑÙç¶ ò°ÞœªÙ-è¶C– ÏCޜ꟠Ùöº Ïí£pè[ª Ú¥ë]ª. Íô³-ð¼-ô³ì Nù£óŸ ªÙ– ÍÙë]ª-ÚÛ E
had + past participle.
4)
How I wish today werea holiday.
ÐôÁV šúõ÷± Íô³ê¶ ÓÙêŸ ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC!
5)
I only wish his programme were dela
 
yed.
ÍêŸè… Ú¥ô¢ uvÚÛ÷ªÙ Îõú£ uiê¶ ò°ÞœªÙåªÙC (Ú¥xúà Íô³ì êŸô¦yêŸ ÷ªìÙ îµüÉ•xàŸ ªa).
6)
I wish I wererather at the function thanhere.
ÏÚÛ\è[ ÚÛû¦o Î íÆ£ÙÚÛ{-ûËÂöº ÑÙè[è[Ù Ïù£dÙ û¦ÚÛª.
Very important:
Ð ¤ÛéÙöº Bô¢E ÚÁJ-ÚÛìª êµLóŸ ª-â¶-óŸ ª-è¯EÚ¨Ïö° ÍÙåªÙæ°Ù:
a)
I/we/you/they wish I/we/you/they were...ORI/we/you/they + Past Doing Word (went,came, etc).
b)
He/She wishes he/she were...ORHe/she+ Past Doing Word.
(ÏÚÛ\è[ÍEo àÁæ°x
wish
ñë]ªõª
'oh'...
ÍE vð§ô¢ÙGÅÙàŸ-÷àŸ ªa.)
Practise the following aloud in EnglishPrema:
ÐôÁV ú£ª÷ª vèµúÃ àŸ «ø‹î¦? û¦ÚÛ« Íö°Ùæ¨C ÑÙç¶ ÓÙêŸ-ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙëÁ! ...!
Hema:
Íö°Ùæ¨C îµ³ìo û¶ûË•ÚÛ ÿ§íÃöº àŸ «ø‹.û¦ÚÛª ÍC ÍÙêŸÞ¥ ìàŸa-ö¶ë]ª.
Prema:
û¦ v赚úúà ÍFo ÷« Ít šúöµÚÂd à¶ú£ªhÙC.û¦ÚÛ  ª Ú¥ú£h ú£yêŸÙvêŸÙ Ï›úh ò°ÞœªÙåªÙC.
Hema:
ìª÷yC Öí£±p-ÚÁ-ÚÛªÙè¯ ÑÙç¶ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC.
Prema:
÷« Í÷ªt-ÚÛC Íô¢niê¶ò°Þœ ªÙåªÙC. ììªo šúöµÚÂd à¶ú£ªÚÁ-E›úh ÓÚÛª\÷ è[ñªsõª šíè[ê¦-ìE Î òÅ¡óŸ ªÙ.
Answer:Prema:
Have you seen Suma's dress today?How nice it is/ I wish/ How I wish/ Oh, I hada dress like that!
Hema:
I saw the same kind of dress in someshop.I didn't like it much.
Prema:
The trouble is mom selects all mydresses.How I wish/ I wish/ Oh, shegaveme the freedom to select mydresses.
Hema:
I wish you didn'tagree to it.
Prema:
I wish my mother understoodit.Herfear is that if I selected my dresses Iwould spend more money.
ñªëÅ]î¦ô¢Ù 7 WûË 2006
II
 
ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ  °ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ  °ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ  °ù£é ÎÙÞœxòÅ  °ù£éÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é
167
Spoken English
ð§êŸ î¦uþ§õ ÚÁú£Ù Ú¨xÚ à¶óŸ ªÙè…...
URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
 ÐôÁV šúõîµjê¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙè¶C! ÐôÁV šúõîµjê¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙè¶C! ÐôÁV šúõîµjê¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙè¶C! ÐôÁV šúõîµjê¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙè¶C! ÐôÁV šúõîµjê¶ ÓÙêŸò°ÞœªÙè¶C!
M. SURESAN
Have you seen Suma's dress today? 
 
Sharmila:
I bought this book on PhysicsYesterday.
(E†o ؈’ Ñ
Physics book
éÌØ√o†’.)
Urmila:
Oh, this one! I wish you hadn'tbought it.
(Éü∆? -†’-´y-C é̆-èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰¶«í∫’ç úËC)
Sharmila:
Why?
(àç?)
Urmila:
I have bought it too and I find it utter-ly useless. It is very badly written.
(Ç °æ¤Ææ  h-é¬Eo ؈÷ éÌØ√o†’. ÅüË ç ¶«í∫- ™‰ü¿’. ¶«í∫-®√-ߪ’™‰ü¿’.)
utterly = totally,
°æ‹Jhí¬
Sharmila:
Oh, I wish you had told me earlier ofit. I wouldn't have bought it.
(†’´¤y Ø√èπ◊ ´·çüËîÁ°œ p Öçõ‰¶«í∫’ç úËC éπü∆/ ´·çüËáçü¿’èπ◊ îÁ°æ p-™‰ü¿’. ؈’ °æ ¤Ææ  h-é¬Eo é̆’çúËü∆Eo é¬ü¿’.)
Urmila:
When I showed it to our lecturer shesaid I had made a mistake in buyingthis book. I wish I had known youwere going to buy it. I would have toldyou not to. Can you return it and getthe money back?
(؈’ DEo ´’†
lecturer
èπ◊ îª÷°œ çî√†’.Ñ °æ ¤Ææ  héπç éÌE ؈’ §Ò®Ω-§ƒô’ î˨»-†E Ç¢Á’ ÅçC.†’´¤y é̆-¶-ûª’-Ø√o-´E -ûÁLÊÆh ¶«í∫ ’çúËC. éÌØÌü¿lE îÁÊ°p-ü∆Eo. ÅC AJ-TîË aÆœúø•’s ûÁaéÓí∫-©¢√?)
Sharmila:
I wish I could. But no shop wouldagree. At the most they may agreeto an exchange.
(Å™« °æ ¤Ææ  héπç AJ-T*a úø•’s ûÁaéÓí∫-L-TûËÆæçûÓ≠æ¢Ë ’. é¬F à
shop
Åçü¿’èπ◊ ä°æ ¤p-éÓü¿’ éπü∆? ´’£æ … Å®·ûËÇ °æ ¤Ææ  héπç •ü¿’©’ ÉçÍéüÁ  jØ√ °æ ¤Ææhéπç É´y-ö« EéÀä°æ ¤p-éӴa)
(At the most =
´’£æ … Å®·ûË)
Urmila:
The author doesn't appear to knowhow to write a book useful for the stu-dents. I think the poor sales wouldmake him wish that he had not writtenthe book.
(Nü∆u-®Ω’n-©èπ◊ Ö°æßÁ ÷í∫-°æ-úË™« °æ ¤Ææ  héπç ®√ߪ’ôç Ç ®Ωîª-®·-ûªèπ◊ ûÁL-Æœ-†ô’x™‰ü¿’. Å´’t鬩’ ûªèπ◊\-´í¬ Öçõ‰... °æ¤Ææhéπç ®√ߪ’èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰¶«í∫’ç-úË-üÁ-¢Á÷ -Å-E Åûª---úÕéÀ-Å-E-°œÆæ’hç-C)
Sharmila:
So what do I do now?
(Å®·ûË؈’ àç îËߪ’†’?)
Urmila:
Exchange it for Prof Bhoutik'sManual of Physics.(
DEo ÉîËaÆœ
Prof Bhoutik
®√Æœ†
Manual of Physics
ûÁaéÓ)
l
É°æ ¤púø’ ï®Ω-í∫E N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ éÓ®Ω’-éÓ´ö«EéÀ 
'If clause'
™
were/ past doing word
ᙫ ¢√-úøû√¢Á ÷ ´’†ç ûÁ©’-Ææ ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπü∆ (í∫ûªÈ®çúø ’ ´‚úø ’
lessons
™).
1)
I wish I were not here =
(ØËE°æ ¤púø ’ Ééπ\úøÖçúø-èπÿúø-ü¿-E°œ-≤ÚhçC/ Öçúø-éπ§ÚûË ¶«í∫’çô’çC)
É°æ ¤p-úÕ-éπ\úøÖØ√o†’
2)
He wishes he were consulted =
(ûª††’ É°æ ¤púø ’ ¢√∞¡ŸxÆæ çv°æ-CÊÆh ¶«í∫ ’çô’çü¿E éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊çô’-Ø√oúø ’ / Ææ çv°æ-CÊÆh ¶«í∫ ’çô’çü¿E ņ’- èπ◊çô’-Ø√oúø ’.)
ûª††’ É°æ ¤púø ’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx Ææçv°æ-Cçîªôç ™‰ü¿’
3)
She wishes she bought such a necklace=
(ûª†’ É°æ ¤púø™«çöÀ 
necklace
é̆’-èπ◊\çõ‰¶«í∫’çô’çü¿-†’-éÌçöçC)
É°æ¤púø ’ é̆’-éÓ\-´úø ç ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’
éÀçC ¢√öÀ ûË ú≈ í∫´’Eç-îªçúÕ.
She wishes to buy such a necklace
(Å™«çöÀ 
necklace
é̆’-éÓ\-¢√-©†’-èπ◊çöçC)
é̆’-éÓ\´îª’a – Ŵ鬨¡ç ÖçC
She wishes she bought such a necklace =
(Ç¢Á’èπ◊ Å™«çöÀ 
necklace
é̆’-èπ◊\çõ‰¶«í∫ ’çô’ç ü¿E°œ≤ÚhçC.)
é¬F éÌØË°æJ-Æœ  nA ™‰ü¿’/ Ç Å´é¬¨¡ç É°æ ¤púø ’ ™‰ü¿’.
a)
She wishes to have such a necklace
(Å™«çöÀ
necklace
ûª†-èπ◊çú≈©E éÓ®Ω-èπ◊çöçC– Ç¢Á’ é̆’-èπ◊\ØËŴ鬨¡ç ÖçC)
b)
She wishes she had such a necklace -(
ûª†é¬
necklace
Öçõ‰ áçûª¶«í∫’çô’çüÓ Å†’-éÌçöçC– É°æ ¤p-ú≈¢Á’-éπ™«çöÀ 
necklace
™‰ü¿’.)
l
(ÉC ÉEo≤ƒ®Ω’x 
repeat
îËߪ’ö«EéÀ鬮Ωùç...
I wish I were, She wishes she were
™«çöÀ
expression correct meaning and use
§ƒ®∏ Ω-èπ◊©èπ◊ ûÁL-ÊÆçü¿’èπ◊.)É°æ¤púø ’ ´’®Ó éÌûª  h N≠æߪ’ç ûÁ©’Ææ’èπ◊çü∆ç.
Observe carefully.Compare the sentences (a) and (b) below
:
a)
He is buying car. I wish he took an expert'sadvice.
(鬮Ω’ éÌçô’-Ø√oúø ’. á´È®jØ√ E°æ ¤-ùÀúÕ 
(expert)
Æ橣栅 BÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰´’ç*C) Æ橣栅 BÆæ’éÓ´ôç ™‰ü¿’.
b)
He has bought a car and it is giving himtrouble. He wishes he had taken an expertsadvice.
(Åûª†’ 鬮Ω’ é̆’-èπ◊\-Ø√oúø ’, ÅC
trouble
É≤ÚhçC. á´È®jØ√ E°æ ¤-ù’úÕÆ橣栅 BÆæ ’èπ◊E-Öçõ‰ ¶«í∫’çúË-ü¿E ņ’èπ◊çô’-Ø√oúø ’).
é̆o-°æ ¤púø ’ BÆæ’éÓ™‰ü¿’.
Sentence (a) Sentence (b)
1) He is buying He has bought
(éÌçô’-Ø√oúø ’) (éÌØ√oúø’–
past)2) He took He had taken
É°æ ¤púø ’ Æ橣栅 BÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰é̆o-°æ ¤púø ’ Æ橣栅 (É°æ¤púø ’ BÆæ’éÓ´ôç ™‰ü¿’) BÆæ ’èπ◊†’çõ‰
(past))
l
Éçûª ´®Ωèπ◊ ´’†ç É°æ ¤púø ’ îËߪ’E/ ï®Ω-í∫E °æ†’-©†’ í∫’-Jç* îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰ 
were/ past doing word
¢√ú≈©E ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç.
Sentence (a)
l
ÅüË í∫ûª ç™ ï®Ω-í∫E °æ†’©’ ïJT Öçõ‰/ ïJ-T† °æ†’©’ ï®Ω-í∫èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰ÅE îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰ 
had been/ had + PP(Sentence (b) )
¢√-úøû√ç.
S
tudy the following:
That's the difference between the use ofwere/ the past doing word, and the use ofhad been / had + past participle-a)
were/past doing word (came, went, etc)- present
b)
had been / had + past participle - past
Now look at the use of had been, and had +past participle in the dialogue betweenSharmila and Urmila.
1) I wish you hadn't bought it - verbhad+past participle(PP) - past -
(†’´¤y- éÌ-†-èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰¶«í∫’çúË-C/é̆’çú≈LqçCé¬ü¿†’-èπ◊çô’Ø√o) .2)
I wish you had told meof it earlier - had+pp-past-
Éçûª-èπ◊ ´·çüËîÁ°æ ¤pçú≈LqçC.3)
I wish I had known you were going to buy it- had known - had+pp-(
´·çüË(
past
™) ûÁL-Ææ’çõ‰¶«í∫’çúËC – ´ü¿lE îÁÊ°p ü∆Eo.4)
I wish I could -
AJT ÉîË aߪ’í∫-L-TûË(É°æ ¤púø ’) ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC...
(past
™ Å®·ûË 
could have +pp)5)... poor sales wouldmake him wish hehad not written thebook =
(Åçûª-ûªèπ◊\´ -Å´’t鬩’ - ÅûªØ√ °æ ¤Ææ  héπç ®√ߪ ’éπ§Ú®·ç õ‰-¶«í∫ ’çúË¢Á ÷ -ÅE°œ≤ƒh®·) °j´Fo 
past
èπ◊ Ææ ç•çCµ ç*†N 鬕öÀ  d,
had + pastparticiple form.
DEoÅçõ‰,
I/ we / you / theywish /He / she / it wishes+ were/past doing word -present
èπÿ,
hadbeen/had+past participle- past
èπÿ.OöÀE ¶«í¬
practice
îËÆœO’
conversation
™ ¢√úø çúÕ. ÉN ¢√úËÆæ çü¿-®√s¥©’ î√™« Öçö«®·.
She bought such a necklace
-Ççí∫    x- ¶µ  «- ≠æ-ù
168
Ççí∫    x- ¶µ«- ≠æ
Spoken English
- §ƒûª- ¢√u≤ƒ©éÓÆæç - éÀ   x é˙-îË -ߪ ’ç-úÕ ..
URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
II
 Ñ-Ø√úø ’    £j«ü¿ ®«ü˛-- ¨¡ Ÿ- v     éπ ¢√®Ωç 9 -W-Ø˛2006
Prabha:
Ñ¢√∞¡ ÂÆ©¢Á  jû˶«í∫ ’çô’çC?
Subha:
Ñ §ƒúø’
college
™
holidays
Öçúø´¤.ØËE-éπ\úø 
student
í¬ Öçúøéπ§Ú-û˶«í∫’ç ô’çC.
Prabha:
F ´™‰  x ØËF
college
™ îË®√†’. E†’o Å†’-Ææ-Jçîª-èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰¶«í∫ ’çúËC.
Subha:
†’´¤y ´÷Ø√†o†’ Æ橣栅 Åúøí∫èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰¶«í∫’çúËC.
Prabha:
college
N≠æߪ’ç °æéπ\-†-°ô’d. Ø√éà
hos-tel
™ Öçú≈©E°œ çîªôç ™‰ü¿’.
Hosteller
í¬ Öçúø-èπÿúø-ü¿E Ø√ éÓJéπ.
Subha:
ÆœE-´÷©’ îª÷úø-ö«EéÀ 
free
í¬ Öçú≈©EéÓJéπ. É°æ p-öÀ Íé î√-™« ÆœE-´÷©’
miss
Åߪ÷uç. Å´Fo îª÷Ææ’çú≈Lqçü¿E éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊çô’Ø√o.
Prabha:
ÉC ´’†èπ◊ ûª°æpü¿’. ÉçéÓ È®çúË∞¡ŸxÉéπ\úËÖçú≈L.
Answer:Prabha:
(How) I wish today were a holiday
Subha:
No holidays at all in this rotten college- rotten =
´·J-T§Ú-®·†, Aô’dèπ◊ áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’).
I wish I were not a studenthere.
Prabha:
I joined this college because of you.I wish I hadn't (had not) followed you
(ÉC
past
鬕öÀ  d
had+pp)
Subha:
I wish you hadn't asked for my dad'sadvice.
(ÉC
past
鬕öÀ  d 
had+pp)
Prabha:
Let alone this College. I don't feel likebeing in the hostel. (feel like =
Å-E°œ ç-îªôç)
Oh, I were not a hosteller!
Subha:
I wish to be free to see movies. We havealready missed a number of movies. Ionly wish we had seen all of them.
Prabha:
(There is) no helping it
(ûª°æ pü¿’)
wehave to be here for two years more.
M. SURESAN
1) The mother wishes that herson were here.
(ûª† éÌúø ’èπ◊ É°æ ¤púø ’ Ééπ\úøÖçõ‰ ¶«í∫’ç-ô’ç-ü¿E ûªLx ņ’-èπ◊ç-öçC.) (É°æ ¤púø ’ Ééπ\úø™‰úø ’)
2)
He wishes that he wereselected-(
É°æ¤púø ’ -Å-ûª-úø ’ áç°œÈéjÖçõ‰ ¶«í∫’ç-úË-ü¿E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’/áç°œ-Èéjû˶«í∫’ç-ô’ç-ü¿E ÅûªE éÓJéπ.)
3)
She wishes she did not seehim.(
Åûª-†-éπ\úøéπ†-°æ-úø-èπ◊çú≈ Öçú≈©E Ç¢Á’ ņ’-èπ◊çöçC. É°æ ¤púø ’– éπ†- °æ-úø ’-ûª’-Ø√oúø ’)
The mother wishes that herson had been present at thefunction last night.(
í∫ûª-®√vA ïJ-T†
function
™ ûªéÌúø ’èπ◊ ÖçúÕÖçõ‰¶«í∫’çúË-ü¿-†’-éÌ öçC ÅûªE ûªLx
past)He wishes that he had beenselected -(
ûª-†’ (í∫-ûª ç™) -áç°œ-Èéj-Öçõ‰- ¶«í∫’çúË-ü¿-†’èπ◊çô’-Ø√o--úø ’)
(had been selected)She wishes she had not seenhim last monday.
(í∫ûª ≤Ú´’-¢√®Ωç Åûªúø ’ éπ†-°æ-úø-éπ §Ú®· Öçõ‰¶«í∫’çô’çü¿E / éπ†-°æúø-èπ◊çú≈ Öçú≈-Lqç-ü¿E ņ’-éÌç-öçC)
Practise the following aloud in English

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