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Trafficking in Persons 2013- D-I Countries

Trafficking in Persons 2013- D-I Countries

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Published by bgeller4936
State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 Countries D-I
State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 Countries D-I

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Published by: bgeller4936 on Jun 21, 2013
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M
151
individuals. There were no reported investigations o child
sex tourism or orced child labor during the reporting period.
 The government took no ormal steps to reduce demand or commercial sex acts during the year. The Czech Republic isnot a party to the 2000 UN TIP Protocol.
DENMARK (Tier 1)
Denmark is primarily a destination and transit country 
or women and children subjected to sex tracking rom
Nigeria, Cameroon, Romania, Estonia, Thailand, and other 
countries in Arica, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin
 America. Some migrants working in agriculture, domestic 
service, restaurants, hotels, and actories are subjected to labor 
tracking under debt bondage, withheld wages, abuse, and
threats o deportation. In one recent case, two Romanians were
held against their will and compelled to work as janitors or 
three years and to live in squalid conditions. Unaccompanied
migrant children are vulnerable to human tracking, although
in practice, there are very ew cases o child tracking.
Copenhagen’s relatively small red-light district represents only 
a portion o the country’s larger commercial sex trade, whichincludes brothels, bars, strip clubs, and underground venues.
 The Government o Denmark ully complies with the
minimum standards or the elimination o tracking. The
government maintained its law enorcement eorts and
increased coordination between law enorcement and social
 workers to proactively identiy some victims o tracking 
through the use o crisis centers. Denmark’s 72-hour limitation
or charging an individual with a crime, including violations
o immigration law, served as a structural impediment to
meaningul victim identication in detention settings, which
may have led to the punishment o some victims or acts
committed as a direct result o their tracking. Once victims
 were identied, the government provided them with protection,
prevented them rom being punished or acts committed asa result o tracking, and encouraged their participation in
investigations. Although there is not a tracking-specic legal
alternative to removal rom Denmark, victims o tracking have the option o applying or asylum in Denmark.
DENMARK TIER RANKING BY YEAR
20062007200820092010201120122013
Recommendations for Denmark:
Continue coordination with trained social workers to improve and institutionalize
 victim-sensitive, proactive identication procedures, including 
special concern or child victims, and to ensure that potential
 victims are not re-victimized, treated as oenders, or detained;
continue law enorcement eorts to proactively identiy and
expeditiously transer potential tracking victims rom police
or immigration custody to crisis centers; assess current use
o legal alternatives to removal, consider ways to increase use
o these alternatives, or create alternatives specic to tracking  victims; improve procedures to encourage victims’ meaningulparticipation in criminal proceedings against their trackers;
carry out an evaluation per the government’s national action
plan to determine why so ew tracking victims agree to
“prepared return,” and assess whether available services are
meeting victims’ needs; continue to investigate and prosecutetracking oenders, and convict and sentence sex and labor 
tracking oenders under Section 262(a) o the Danish
criminal code; urther enhance continued law enorcement 
eorts against labor tracking; and ensure tracking 
oenders serve sentences commensurate with the serious
nature o the oense.
Prosecution
 The Government o Denmark maintained its anti-tracking 
law enorcement eorts in 2012. Denmark prohibits sex 
tracking and orced labor through Section 262(a) o its
criminal code, which prescribes punishments o up toten years’ imprisonment; these penalties are suciently 
stringent and commensurate with penalties prescribed or 
other serious crimes, such as rape. Authorities initiated our new investigations against nine tracking suspects in 2012,compared with 14 suspects investigated in 2011. Tracking 
prosecutions against 11 deendants resulted in three convictions,
a decrease compared with 13 deendants prosecuted andnine convicted in 2011. Some oenders investigated and
prosecuted under the anti-tracking statute were convictedinstead under Section 228 or procuring prostitution, which
imposes more lenient maximum penalties o up to our years’
imprisonment. One convicted oender was sentenced to 10
months’ imprisonment; the case is under appeal. Two oenders
 were sentenced to two years’ and six months’ imprisonment and were expelled rom Denmark.Media reports noted the rst arrests or orced labor in a case
involving a Romanian couple who reportedly were held against 
their will doing janitorial work or three years, denied wages,
and made to live in a closet on the alleged trackers’ balcony.
 A study commissioned by the Government o Denmark notedcourts have yet to prosecute any labor tracking cases despitereports o migrants held in debt bondage, under threat o losing 
residence permits, and denied wages in the agriculture and
cleaning industries. Over the last year, the Danish government 
began to ocus on identiying victims o labor tracking; the
study noted that the increasing number o labor tracking 
cases would necessitate intensied eorts to prevent and
combat this orm o tracking. Law enorcement and other 
ocials experienced continued diculties discerning orced
labor rom lesser labor violations but are taking proactive
steps to enhance victim identication and law enorcement 
eorts in this area. The government trained tax inspectors and
employees o trade unions on labor tracking identication,
 which resulted in increased identication o orced labor 
cases during the reporting period. The government also
trained social workers, police ocers, judges, prosecutors,immigration ocers, health proessionals, and NGOs on
human tracking.
 The government did not provide disaggregated data to
demonstrate eorts against both sex and labor tracking.
 The Government o Denmark did not report any investigations
or prosecutions o public ocials or alleged complicity intracking-related oenses during the reporting period.
Protection
 The government increased coordination between law 
enorcement and social workers in an eort to improve victim
 
152
   D   J   I   B   O   U   T   I
identication during the reporting period. In 2012, the Danish
Immigration Service identied 45 tracking victims without 
legal status, and social workers in the government’s center against human tracking identied 21 victims with legal
status, or a total o 66 identied tracking victims, compared
 with 60 victims identied in 2011. Denmark successully identied 17 labor tracking victims in 2012, compared
 with none in 2011. The center reerred 39 o the identied tracking victims tocrisis centers and inormed all victims o the availability o 
short term healthcare and legal assistance. Eight victims stayed
in asylum centers. In addition to two existing government-
supported crisis centers and a mobile outreach health unit 
that served victims o tracking, the government opened an
additional drop-in crisis center during the reporting period
in northern Jutland to oer health and social services to
tracking victims, which resulted in improved coordination
between social workers and police to reer potential victims
o tracking to the center instead o remanding them to
police custody. Victims were ree to come and go rom these
centers. The police worked with the crisis center and local
service providers to prepare services or possible victims o tracking in advance o raids on massage clinics during thereporting period.
Denmark’s 72-hour limitation or charging an individual with
a crime, including violations o immigration law, served as astructural impediment to meaningul victim identication
in detention settings, which may have led to the punishment 
o some victims or acts committed as a direct result o their 
tracking. In November 2012, the Danish government 
allocated money through the 2013 nancial bill to strengthen
the eorts o the Danish center against human tracking to
improve condence building in the early stages o interaction
 with victims.
Non-EU tracking victims have both the option o applying 
or asylum in Denmark as well as receiving a residence
permit i their stay is necessary or criminal investigationsor proceedings; in practice these options have been rarely 
used. Since 2007, 11 oreign victims o oreign tracking have
been granted resident permits. There are no legal alternatives
to removal specic to tracking victims. For most non-EU
 victims, this precludes their presence and participation in
prosecutions o their trackers.
 The Danish government provides non-EU victim services
through a prepared return program. Victims ocially identiedby the Danish Immigration Service are granted a 30-day periodin which to decide whether to accept a prepared return. During 
the reporting period, i victims accepted prepared return they 
could be granted a urther 70-day postponement o removal
rom Denmark under section 33(1) o the Aliens Act. An
amendment to the Alien’s Act passed in November 2012 that  will come into orce next reporting period provided unding or the extension o this period rom 70 to 90 days. Prepared
return provided up to 100 days o accommodation in a shelter,
reerrals to organizations in victims’ countries o origin to
assist with repatriation and reintegration, preparation o travel
documents, and escort during travel. In 2012, our victims o 
tracking agreed to participate in the government’s prepared
return program, compared to 12 victims who participated
in 2011.In June 2012, the director o public prosecutions published
guidelines instructing police commissioners, chie prosecutors,
and regional public prosecutors to withdraw charges against 
ormally identied victims o tracking i the alleged oence
relates to the tracking and cannot be characterized as a
serious crime in response to the act that Danish law does
not provide statutory protection or tracking victims against 
such prosecutions.
Prevention
 The Government o Denmark sustained eorts to prevent 
tracking during the reporting period. The government’s center 
against human tracking unded an NGO-run campaign
aimed at increasing public awareness o sex tracking and
reducing demand or prostitution. The government allocated
the equivalent o approximately $15.5 million to und activities
under the national action plan or 2011 to 2014. During the
reporting period, the government designated the equivalent o an additional $680,000 to und victim identication, prepared
return, and public awareness prevention activities in 2013
and 2014. The Government o Denmark also supported
the third phase o a program against human tracking in
Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine with a budget o the equivalent 
o approximately $2.7 million during the reporting period,
Denmark’s largest assistance program to combat human
tracking abroad.
 The government did not demonstrate eorts to reduce
the demand or orced labor during the reporting period.
 The Danish Ministry o Deense provided human rights
training to Danish soldiers prior to their deployment abroad
on international peacekeeping missions, which included
instruction on its zero-tolerance policy on human tracking.
DJIBOUTI (Tier 2 Watch List)
Djibouti is a source, transit, and destination country or 
men, women, and children subjected to orced labor and sex 
tracking. Over 80,000 men, women, and children rom
Ethiopia, Somalia, and Eritrea are estimated to have passed
through Djibouti as voluntary and undocumented economic migrants
en route
to Yemen and other locations in the Middle
East. An unknown number o these migrants are subjectedto conditions o orced labor and sex tracking upon arrivalin these destinations. During their time in Djibouti, whichmay last or extended periods, this large migrant population,
including oreign street children, is vulnerable to variousorms o exploitation, including human tracking. SomeDjiboutian and migrant women and girls may all victim
to domestic servitude or sex tracking in Djibouti City, theEthiopia-Djibouti trucking corridor, or Obock, the preerreddeparture point or Yemen via the Red Sea or Gul o Aden.
Some migrants intending to be smuggled may be movedor detained against their will within Djibouti. Networks,
including Djiboutians and Djiboutian residents, may charge
rents or kidnap and hold migrants or ransom—increasing thei
 vulnerability to tracking and, at times, creating situationstantamount to debt bondage; reports indicate some migrant  women were subject to domestic servitude in Djibouti as a
result. In addition, ransoms may be paid by trackers based inSaudi Arabia, who reportedly intend to exploit migrants upon
their arrival there. Djibouti’s older street children reportedly 
act at times as pimps o younger children. Members o oreign
 
 J I    O  U I   
153
militaries stationed in Djibouti contribute to the demand or 
 women and girls in prostitution, including possible tracking 
 victims. Street children, including Djiboutian children, aresometimes orced by their parents or other adult relatives to
beg as an additional source o amily income; children may be
also recruited rom oreign countries or begging in Djibouti.Children are vulnerable to orced labor as domestic servantsand coerced to commit petty crimes, such as thet.
 The Government o Djibouti does not ully comply withthe minimum standards or the elimination o tracking;
however, it is making signicant eorts to do so. Despite these
measures, the government did not demonstrate evidence o overall increasing eorts to address human tracking since
the previous reporting period; thereore, Djibouti is placed on Tier 2 Watch List or a second consecutive year. The government 
provided basic healthcare to undocumented migrants, but 
it ailed to acknowledge their vulnerability to tracking or 
the existence o various orms o human tracking in the
country. In their monitoring o bars and nightclubs or child
prostitution, police arrested children and reerred them to
medical services on an
ad hoc
basis. The government expandedits partnership with IOM, requesting assistance in developing 
an anti-tracking strategy, including the development o 
procedures or the identication o tracking victims. However,
unlike in previous reporting periods, the anti-tracking  working group led by the Ministry o Justice was inactive
during the year and ailed to complete its drat o a national
action plan. Police investigated seven cases o Djiboutiansexploiting or abusing children in prostitution. Outside o child prostitution, the government ailed to investigate or 
prosecute any other tracking oenses, including those
allegedly committed by complicit ocials. It made no attempt 
to implement the protection or prevention components o its
anti-tracking law, even within the connes o its limitedresources and capacity.
DJIBOUTI TIER RANKING BY YEAR
20062007200820092010201120122013
Recommendations for Djibouti:
Drat a national action
plan to coordinate and pace government eorts; amend Law 
210 to distinguish between tracking and smuggling oenses;
 when implementing Law 210, identiying victims, andcombating traicking generally, ensure use o a broad
denition o tracking in persons consistent with the 2000
UN TIP Protocol that does not rely on evidence o movement 
but rather on exploitation o the victim; continue to work 
 with judges, prosecutors, and police to clariy the dierence
between cases o human tracking and alien smuggling;
enorce the anti-tracking statute through investigation and
prosecution o traicking oenders, especially those
responsible or child prostitution, domestic servitude, or other 
orced labor oenses, and provide data on convictions and
sentences o tracking oenders; institute a module on
human tracking as a standard part o the mandatory training 
program or new police and border guards; establish policies
and procedures or government ocials—including law 
enorcement, health, and social welare ocers—to identiy 
proactively and interview potential tracking victims andtranser them to care; expand mechanisms or providing 
protective services to victims, possibly through the orging 
o partnerships with NGOs or international organizations;
orm partnerships with local religious leaders, encouraging them to educate their congregations about tracking; andlaunch a nationwide anti-tracking awareness campaign.
Prosecution
 The government made minimal eorts to enorce its laws
against human traicking during the reporting period.
 Although there is a deputy prosecutor with responsibilit
or overseeing all human traicking prosecutions, the
government did not successully prosecute any tracking 
oenders in 2012. This was due in part to Djibouti’s Law 210,
“Regarding the Fight Against Human Tracking,” enactedin December 2007, which prohibits both orced labor and
sex tracking but does not adequately distinguish between
human tracking and alien smuggling. Law 210 provides
or the protection o victims regardless o ethnicity, gender,or nationality, and prescribes penalties o two to ve years’
imprisonment, penalties which are suciently stringent but not commensurate with those prescribed or other 
serious crimes, such as rape. Djiboutian authorities ailed to
demonstrate eorts to investigate or punish domestic servitude,
other orced labor, or sex tracking oenses. The National
Police reported an attempt to assist suspected victims o orcedlabor, though the workers chose to continue their exploitative
 work in hopes o aording passage to Yemen. In 2011, the
most recent year or which data is available, the morality police
continued their patrols o nightclubs and bars in DjiboutiCity to monitor or prostitution and arrested both clients
and persons in prostitution, including 80 children betweenthe ages o 10 and 17; the government ailed to take any law 
enorcement action against the establishments in which
they were ound and did not screen others in this vulnerable
population or tracking victimization. Nonetheless, the
government reported its investigation o seven cases o 
Djiboutians exploiting or abusing children in prostitution,
although it provided minimal details on these cases. Following 
overnight detention, police ocers reportedly delivered
an Eritrean asylum seeker on two separate occasions to a
construction site where he was orced to work all day without pay. There are unconrmed allegations that police round-ups
o non-Djiboutian residents, including asylum seekers, are
semi-routine. The government ailed to investigate ocials
allegedly complicit in tracking or tracking-related crimes,
including border guards bribed to allow entry into Djibouti. The government did not independently train its ocials torespond to tracking crimes, though it contributed physicalspace or international organizations to provide training toDjiboutians on tracking as part o migration management and border control training.
Protection
 The government made minimal eorts to protect victims
o tracking during the reporting period or to ensure that 
 victims received access to shelter or other services. With limited
resources and a small pool o underunded NGO partners,
the government had little means with which to address
the needs o tracking victims during the year. Djiboutian
authorities provided a baseline level o care to Arican migrants
in crisis, including ood and emergency outpatient care or dehydration, pregnancy, or injuries received while traveling;
it is unclear whether tracking victims in this population

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