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Trafficking in Persons Report 2013- J-M Countries

Trafficking in Persons Report 2013- J-M Countries

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State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 Countries J-M
State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 Countries J-M

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210
   J   A   M   A   I   C   A
practices on victim protection with other countries; and
increase eorts to identiy victims o domestic tracking,
specically among children within the country who are
 vulnerable to orced labor and sex tracking.
Prosecution
 The government continued to vigorously investigate, prosecute,and convict tracking oenders during the reporting period.Italy prohibits all orms o human tracking though its 2003Measures Against Tracking in Persons law, which prescribespenalties o eight to 20 years’ imprisonment. These penalties
are suciently stringent and commensurate with penalties
prescribed or other serious oenses, such as rape. Authorities
investigated 2,471 suspects or tracking in 2011—the most 
recent year or which law enorcement statistics were available—an increase rom 2,333 in 2010. Italian prosecutors brought totrial 224 deendants in 2011, compared with 621 in 2010. Trial
courts convicted 179 tracking oenders in 2011; 174 were
convicted in 2010. The average sentence imposed on convicted
trackers in 2011 was 6.5 years in prison; those convicted
or exploitation o children in prostitution were sentenced to
an average o 3.8 years’ imprisonment and a ne, and those
convicted o slavery were sentenced to an average o 1.5 years’
imprisonment and a ne. The Government o Italy did not 
disaggregate data on convictions or sex tracking and orced
labor. In April 2012, authorities arrested a ormer 
Carabinieri
police ocer or recruiting and exploiting oreign womenin prostitution; prosecution continued against this ocialat the end o the reporting period. Prosecution continued
against ormer Prime Minister Berlusconi or the alleged
commercial sexual exploitation o a Moroccan minor. The
government continued to incorporate specialized training on
 victim identication and investigation o tracking crimesin regular curriculum or law enorcement.
Protection
 The government continued robust protection or victims o 
tracking, but did not always proactively identiy victims o tracking among vulnerable migrants. The government andNGOs assisted 2,018 oreign victims o tracking during thereporting period. About 70 percent o victims were women and
one and a hal percent were transgender. About 10 percent o 
 victims were children. Forty percent o victims were subjected
to labor tracking. Observers reported that procedures or reerring victims o tracking to services—and the quality 
o services—varied by region; police did not consistently 
apply guidelines or victim identication and reerral. NGOsreported that screening or tracking was inadequate amonthe large number o reugees and migrants coming rom Libya
and Tunisia; it is possible authorities missed opportunitiesto identiy victims o tracking among these groups. There were reports o asylum seekers and unaccompanied children
arriving to Italy’s Adriatic ports via Greece who were summarily 
returned to Greece under the EU Dublin II regulation without proper screening or protection needs, tracking victimization,
or age and best interest determinations or children. In 2012,the government issued temporary residence permits to 466 victims o tracking; 74 o these victims were subjected to
labor exploitation. Victims were not required to cooperate withlaw enorcement to obtain a residence permit. The government provides victims with three to six months’ assistance, shelter or an additional 12 months, and reintegration assistance. Victimsmay obtain a subsequent work or study permit, which can lead
to permanent residency, i the victim nds employment or is
enrolled in a training program through designated NGOs. Lack o specialized assistance or male victims o tracking limitedtheir access to these permits. Tightening o migration policies
made it more dicult or victims o tracking to obtaintemporary residence permits and procedures on issuance
o permits varied among provincial police headquarters.
Despite dire economic circumstances and the Eurozone crisis,
government unding or victim assistance remained stable at the equivalent o approximately $10.4 million in 2012.
Prevention
 The government decreased anti-traicking prevention
eorts in 2012. The government reduced unding o public 
awareness programs in an eort to concentrate resources
on victim assistance. NGOs unded by the government,
and in cooperation with municipalities, police, and social
services, carried out campaigns at the local level targeted to
reduce demand or commercial sex acts. The government did
not demonstrate eorts to reduce demand or orced labor.
 The government continued to operate an active hotline or  victims o tracking. In 2012, the government launched aninitiative in Angola to prevent child tracking and provide
basic assistance to unaccompanied children. The Ministry or Equal Opportunity coordinates an anti-tracking committeeo relevant ministries and the national anti-maa prosecution
unit. The government did not publish a systematic evaluation o 
its anti-tracking eorts. The government’s rst drat nationalanti-tracking action plan remained pending approval with
the Council o Ministers. The Italian armed orces continuedto provide anti-tracking training to civilians and military personnel beore their deployment abroad on internationalpeacekeeping missions.
JAMAICA (Tier 2)
Jamaica is a source, transit, and destination country or adultsand children subjected to sex tracking and orced labor. Theexploitation o local children in the sex trade within Jamaica,
a orm o sex tracking, remains a serious problem. Sex 
tracking o children and adults likely occurs on the street,
in night clubs, bars, and in private homes throughout Jamaica,
including in resort towns. In addition, massage parlors in
Jamaica reportedly oten lure women into prostitution under 
the alse pretense o employment as massage therapists andthen withhold their wages and restrict their movement—key 
indicators o human tracking. People living in Jamaica’s
poverty-stricken garrison communities, territories ruled
by criminal “
dons
” eectively outside o the government’s
control, are especially at risk. NGOs also expressed concernthat children rom poor amilies sent to better-o amiliesor local “
dons
” with the intent o a chance at a better lie are
highly vulnerable to prostitution and orced labor, including 
domestic servitude. Other at-risk children are those working in the inormal sector, such as on arms, or in street vending,
markets, and shops, as well as those engaging in begging.
NGOs and the government remain alarmed at the high number 
o missing children and are concerned that some o thesechildren are alling prey to orced labor or sex tracking.
 There is evidence that oreign nationals are subjected to orced
labor in Jamaica and aboard oreign-fagged shing vesselsoperating in Jamaican waters. Numerous sources report that 
many Jamaican citizens have been subjected to sex tracking 
or orced labor abroad, including throughout the Caribbean,
 
 J MI    C 
211
Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Childsex tourism reportedly occurs in Jamaica.
 The Government o Jamaica does not ully comply with
the minimum standards or the elimination o tracking;
however, it is making signicant eorts to do so. For another  year, the government did not convict tracking oenders or ocials complicit in human tracking, but the government 
made eorts to raise awareness about human tracking 
and demonstrated a proactive, victim-centered approach in
identiying and assisting suspected orced labor victims aboard
a shing boat, which was an important accomplishment 
or the region as orced labor on shing boats oten occurs
undetected. Few Jamaican tracking victims were identiedor received government assistance during the reporting period.
JAMAICA TIER RANKING BY YEAR
20062007200820092010201120122013
Recommendations for Jamaica:
Vigorously prosecute,
convict, and punish tracking oenders, including ocials
complicit in orced labor or sex tracking; ensure that 
prescribed penalties or human tracking are commensurate with penalties or other serious crimes, such as orcible sexual
assault; ensure ocials are trained on the undamental
principles o international human tracking law, including that movement o a victim is not necessary or tracking to
occur; implement standard operating procedures to guidepolice, labor inspectors, child welare ocials, and health workers in the proactive identication o local, as well as
oreign, victims o orced labor and sex tracking—including children under age 18 in prostitution in night clubs, bars, and
massage parlors—and in their reerral to adequate serviceproviders; and use the government shelter in cooperation
 with NGOs to provide a sae and welcoming place or Jamaicanchildren under 18 in prostitution and other tracking victims
that need protection.
Prosecution
 The government initiated two new prosecutions, but serious
concerns about impunity or perpetrators o human tracking 
in Jamaica remained. The government prohibits all orms
o tracking through its comprehensive Tracking Act 
o Jamaica, which went into eect in 2007. Punishments
prescribed or human tracking under the Act extend up to
10 years’ imprisonment, which are suciently stringent but donot appear to be commensurate with penalties prescribed or 
other serious crimes, such as rape. The government reportedinitiating 205 sex tracking investigations and at least one
labor tracking investigation during the reporting period.
 Authorities also reported our arrests on human tracking 
charges. There were two new human tracking prosecutions
in 2012. The government remained active on only two out 
o 10 prosecutions o human tracking oenses carried
over rom previous reporting periods. For another year, thegovernment reported no convictions o tracking oenders. While no government ocials were investigated, prosecuted,
or convicted or alleged complicity in tracking-related
oenses during the reporting period, allegations persisted
rom previous reporting periods that some Jamaican policeocers were complicit in prostitution rings, some o whom were suspected o recruiting children under 18 and coercing 
adults into the sex trade, both o which are orms o sex 
tracking. The Jamaican Constabulary Force reported that it conducted
44 human tracking awareness training sessions or over 
749 police ocers and over 1,000 school ocials, studentsand members o the public. The government also providedin-kind support to IOM-led capacity building and technicalskills training workshops or government ocials.
Protection
 The government made eorts in the protection o tracking 
 victims during the reporting period. Authorities identied
23 suspected victims o tracking, including 21 Honduran
children they rescued rom orced labor on a ishing boat. Jamaican authorities involved in the shing boat 
case demonstrated a strong commitment to the proactive
identication o tracking victims and implementation
o victim protection principles. The government conrmed
identiying only two Jamaican victims o tracking during thereporting period; both were victims o sex tracking. As part 
o a joint project with ILO, Jamaican authorities removed at 
least 130 children rom child labor situations, some o whom
 were likely victims o tracking, though the government 
did not conrm i any o the children were in orced labor. The small number o Jamaican tracking victims identied,
especially given the large number o investigations, raised
concerns that some ront-line responders, such as police, child
protection ocials, labor ocials, and health workers, did
not adhere to standard operating procedures or proactive
identication o human tracking and reerral o suspectedcases or assistance.
 The government’s shelter or tracking victims remained
 vacant during the reporting period. Authorities reerred the
children rom the shing boat case to a church shelter and the
two Jamaican victims to the Child Development Agency and
the Victims Support Unit. The government reported spending 
the equivalent o more than approximately $131,000 on
anti-tracking measures and victim assistance and provided
counseling, medical care, ood, repatriation assistance, and
translation services to the victims identied over the past year.
In coordination with Jamaica’s anti-tracking law, thegovernment provided ormal guidance or immigration
ocials, advising them not to deport oreign victims, and it 
provided temporary immigration relie to the 21 oreign child victims identied during the reporting period. The government 
 worked with IOM to provide sae repatriation or the oreign victims identied and unded a charter fight or their returnhome. Jamaican ocials encouraged tracking victims toparticipate in investigations and prosecutions o tracking 
oenders, and the Tracking Act o Jamaica guaranteed
that tracking victims were immune rom prosecution or 
immigration or prostitution violations committed as a direct 
result o their being tracked. There were no allegations o 
 victims being punished or crimes committed as a direc
result o being subjected to human tracking during the
reporting period.
 
212
   J   A   P   A   N
Prevention
 The government made eorts to prevent human tracking during the reporting period. Ocials organized a series o 
events to raise awareness about human tracking, including 
appearances on television, a public orum in coordination with the Nurses Association o Jamaica, and a nationwide
broadcast on one o Jamaica’s most popular radio shows.
Speakers at each o these events included representatives
rom Jamaica’s anti-tracking taskorce, the Ministry o 
National Security, the Ministry o Justice, and the Jamaica
Constabulary Force. The campaign targeted potential victims
and aimed to educate them on ways to identiy and avoidpotential trackers. The Prime Minister expressed public 
commitment to address “modern-day slavery” in a speech to
the UN General Assembly. Jamaica’s anti-tracking taskorce
developed a national plan o action during the previous
reporting period. A government-operated general crime victim
hotline oered specialized assistance to persons reporting 
human tracking. The government did not report any childsex tourism investigations or eorts to reduce the demandor commercial sex acts, child sex tourism, or orced labor.
JAPAN (Tier 2)
Japan is a destination, source, and transit country or men
and women subjected to orced labor and sex tracking, and
or children subjected to sex tracking. Male and emale
migrant workers rom China, Indonesia, the Philippines,
 Vietnam, Poland, and other Asian countries are sometimessubject to conditions o orced labor in Japan. Some womenand children rom East Asia, Southeast Asia, South America,
and, in previous years, Russia and Central America, whotravel to Japan or employment or raudulent marriage are
orced into prostitution upon arrival. During the reporting 
period, Japanese nationals, particularly teenage girls and
oreign-born children o Japanese citizens who acquired
nationality, were also subjected to sex tracking. In addition,
trackers continued to use raudulent marriages betweenoreign women and Japanese men to acilitate the entry o these women into Japan or orced prostitution. Japanese
organized crime syndicates (the
Yakuza
) are responsible or 
some tracking in Japan, both directly and indirectly. In
recent years, the emergence o small-scale trackers, mainly 
Japanese nationals, has been reported. Trackers strictly 
control the movement o victims, using debt bondage, threats
o violence or deportation, blackmail, and other coercive
psychological methods to control victims. Victims o orced
prostitution sometimes ace debts upon commencement 
o their contracts, and most are required to pay employers
additional ees or living expenses, medical care, and other 
necessities, leaving them predisposed to debt bondage. “Fines”
or misbehavior are added to victims’ original debt, and the
process brothel operators use to calculate these debts was not 
transparent. The phenomenon o 
enjo kosai
, also known as
“compensated dating,” continues to acilitate the prostitution
o Japanese children. NGOs report that sophisticated and
organized networks target vulnerable Japanese women andgirls by creating a alse sense o intimacy to introduce theminto prostitution. Japan is also a transit country or persons
in tracking situations traveling rom East Asia to North America. Japanese men continue to be a signicant source
o demand or child sex tourism in Southeast Asia and, to alesser extent, Mongolia.
 The Government o Japan has not, through practices or 
policy, addressed the existence o orced labor within the
Industrial Trainee and Technical Internship Program (TTIP),a government-run program that was originally designed tooster basic industrial skills and techniques among oreign
 workers but has instead become a guest worker program. The
majority o technical interns are Chinese nationals, some o  whom pay up to the equivalent o approximately $5,000 or 
their jobs and are employed under extortionate contractsthat mandate oreiture o the equivalent o thousands o 
dollars i workers try to leave. Although banned since 2010,
ees, deposits, and “punishment” contracts continue to be
reported, and some companies conscated trainees’ passports
and other travel documents, and controlled the movementso the interns to prevent escape or communication.
 The Government o Japan does not ully comply with the
minimum standards or the elimination o tracking; however,
it is making signicant eorts to do so. Despite limited law enorcement gains during the year, the Japanese government 
did not develop or enact legislation that would ll key gaps inacilitating anti-tracking prosecutions, as recommended by this Report or the last our consecutive years. The government also ailed to develop tracking-specic assistance measures,
continuing instead to rely on inadequate preectural-level
domestic violence shelters. The TTIP continued to lack eective oversight or means to protect participants rom
abuse; despite some reorms, observers report recruitment 
practices and working conditions have not changed or interns.
 The government did not prosecute or convict orced labor 
perpetrators despite reports o labor tracking in the TTIP.
 The number o identied victims, especially oreign tracking  victims, decreased, and no male victims o either orced labor 
or orced prostitution were identied.
JAPAN TIER RANKING BY YEAR
20062007200820092010201120122013
Recommendations for Japan:
Accede to the 2010 UN TIP
Protocol; drat and enact a comprehensive anti-tracking 
law prohibiting all orms o tracking; signicantly increase
eorts to investigate and prosecute orced labor cases, and
punish oenders with jail time; increase the enorcement o 
bans on deposits, punishment agreements, withholding o 
passports, and other practices that contribute to orced labor in the TTIP, and establish an oversight mechanism to ensure
accountability; expand and implement ormal victim
identication procedures or ront line ocers to recognizeboth male and emale victims in orced labor or prostitution
situations and to ensure that victims are not detained or 
unlawul acts committed as a direct result o being tracked;
aggressively investigate, prosecute, and punish Japanese
nationals who engage in child sex tourism.
Prosecution
 The government o Japan demonstrated a limited increase in
its law enorcement eorts during the reporting period. Japan’scriminal code, as amended in 2004, only prohibits the “buying and selling o persons,” an overly narrow denition that does

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