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Trafficking in Persons Report 2013-A-C Nations

Trafficking in Persons Report 2013-A-C Nations

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Published by bgeller4936
State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 Countries A-C
State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 Countries A-C

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Published by: bgeller4936 on Jun 21, 2013
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 C  O  U I    S 
Children who work in stone quarries are subjected to long days of harsh, unhealthy, and hazardous working conditions that areharmful to their growth and development. In exchange they are paid little and exposed to physical, emotional, and sometimeseven sexual abuse.
   A   F   G   H   A   N   I   S   T   A   N
 AFGHANISTAN(Tier 2 Watch List)
 Aghanistan is a source, transit, and destination country or 
men, women, and children subjected to orced labor and
sex tracking. Internal tracking is more prevalent than
transnational tracking. The majority o Aghan victims are
children subjected to human tracking in carpet-making 
and brick kiln actories and domestic servitude, and in
commercial sexual exploitation, begging, and transnational
drug smuggling within Aghanistan and in Pakistan, Iran,
and Saudi Arabia. Some Aghan amilies knowingly sell their 
children or orced prostitution, including or 
bacha baazi
 where wealthy or infuential men, including government 
ocials and security orces, use young boys or social and
sexual entertainment. Other amilies send their children
through labor brokers or employment, but the children endup in orced labor. Opium-arming amilies sometimes sell
their children to settle debts with opium trackers. According 
to the government and the UN, insurgent groups orce older children to serve as suicide bombers. Some Aghan amiliesare trapped in debt bondage in the brick-making industry ineastern Aghanistan.
Increasing numbers o men, women, and children in Aghanistan pay intermediaries to assist them in nding employment in Iran, Pakistan, India, Europe, or North
 America; some o these intermediaries orce Aghan citizensinto labor or prostitution ater their arrival. Aghan women
and girls are subjected to orced prostitution and domestic 
servitude in Pakistan, Iran, and India. Aghan boys and
men are subjected to orced labor and debt bondage in the
agriculture and construction sectors in Iran, Pakistan, Greece,
 Turkey, and the Gul states. There were reports o women and
girls rom the Philippines, Pakistan, Iran, Tajikistan, and
China subjected to sex tracking in Aghanistan. Under the
pretense o high-paying employment opportunities, labor recruiting agencies lure oreign workers to Aghanistan,
including rom Sri Lanka, Nepal, India, Iran, Pakistan, and
 Tajikistan. Trackers also recruit Aghan villagers to Aghan
cities and then sometimes subject them to orced labor or 
orced prostitution ater their arrival. The Government o Aghanistan does not ully comply with
the minimum standards or the elimination o tracking.
 The government has not shown evidence o increasing eorts
to address human tracking compared to the previous year;
thereore, Aghanistan is placed on Tier 2 Watch List or aourth consecutive year. Aghanistan was granted a waiver 
rom an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because itsgovernment has a written plan that, i implemented, would
constitute making signicant eorts to bring itsel into
compliance with the minimum standards or the elimination o tracking and would devote sucient resources to implement that plan. During the reporting period, the Aghan government 
recorded the rst known convictions o tracking oendersunder its 2008 law. The government continued, however, to
penalize and re-victimize tracking victims or oensescommitted in the course o being tracked. Government 
ocials’ complicity in tracking remained a serious problem. The level o understanding o human tracking among Aghan
government ocials remained very low.
Recommendations for Afghanistan:
Eliminate police and
court penalization o tracking victims or oenses committed
as a direct result o being tracked, such as prostitution or adultery; increase use by law enorcement o the 2008 anti-
tracking law, including prosecuting suspected trackers
and convicting tracking oenders; consider amending the2008 anti-tracking law to prohibit and penalize all orms
o tracking in persons; investigate and prosecute government 
ocials suspected o being complicit in human tracking;strengthen the High Commission or Combating Crimes o 
 Abduction and Human Tracking/Smuggling, and implement the anti-tracking national action plan; educate government 
ocials, including law enorcement and judicial ocials, on
the denition o human tracking as well as protection and
law enorcement strategies; segregate older and younger boys
in tracking shelters to prevent the abuse o younger boys;
strengthen the capacity o the ministry o interior’s anti-
tracking/smuggling unit, including by ensuring the unit is
ully staed and dierentiating between smuggling and
tracking; undertake initiatives to prevent tracking, such
as running a public awareness campaign to warn at-risk populations o the dangers o tracking, and encourage
religious leaders to incorporate anti-tracking messaging inreligious teachings; improve eorts to collect, analyze, andaccurately report counter-tracking data; and accede to the2000 UN TIP Protocol.
 The Government o Aghanistan improved anti-tracking law enorcement eorts over the reporting period, though
ocial complicity in human tracking remained a problem.
 Aghanistan’s 2008 Law Countering Abduction and Human
 Tracking/Smuggling, along with Article 516 o the penal
code, prohibits many, but not all, orms o human tracking.
Government ocials, including law enorcement and judicialocials, continued to have a limited understanding o human
tracking. In Dari—the language spoken most widely in
 Aghanistan—the same word denotes both human tracking 
and human smuggling, compounding the conusion. Thelaw prescribes between eight and 15 years’ imprisonment or persons convicted o some orms o labor tracking and prescribes penalties o up to lie imprisonment or 
those convicted o some orms o sex tracking. The 2009
Elimination o Violence Against Women (EVAW) law and
other provisions o the penal code contain penalties or most orms o tracking. These penalties are suciently stringent 
and commensurate to those prescribed or other serious
crimes, such as rape. The attorney general’s oce reported
the convictions o our Aghan and Pakistani men who orcedour Pakistani women into prostitution. The rst-level court’s
 verdict, which sentenced the our tracking oenders to
20 years’ imprisonment, was upheld by the appellate court.
 These are the rst known convictions under the government’s
anti-tracking law. A husband was convicted under the
EVAW law or killing his wie because she reused to engage
in prostitution. He was sentenced to 18 years’ imprisonment,and his accomplice, a male child, was sentenced to 10 years’
imprisonment. International organizations and NGOscontinued to provide training to police, prosecutors, and
other government ocials on identiying and investigating 
tracking cases. The Ministry o Interior (MOI) and Ministry o Justice provided venues and provincial government trainers
or some o the programs.
Government employees’ complicity in human tracking 
remained a serious problem. Reports indicated that government 
ocials, including commanders o the Aghan NationalSecurity Forces and provincial governors, were complicit 
in the practice o 
bacha baazi
. There have been reports that national and border police acilitated tracking and raped
sex tracking victims. Police at the western border with Iran
routinely collaborated with child trackers and let trackerspass through the border controls with their victims. An AghanNational Army (ANA) sergeant was convicted and sentenced to11 years’ imprisonment under the EVAW law or orcing his wie
into prostitution; clients were local power brokers and ANA colleagues. There were no other reports o investigations or 
prosecutions o government employees or alleged complicity 
in tracking-related oenses during the reporting period.
 The Government o Aghanistan did not make discernible
progress in protecting victims o tracking. Aghanistan did
not develop or employ systematic procedures to identiy victims
o tracking or reer them to protective services. However,
some provincial and ederal government agencies worked with
international organizations at border crossing points with
Iran to identiy potential victims and reer them to protective
services. The Ministry o Labor and Social Aairs, Martyrs, and
the Disabled (MOLSAMD) owns three short-term tracking 
shelters, which were operated by IOM and partner NGOs andpaid or by a oreign government. MOLSAMD was responsible
or the registration o victims and the security o the acilities,
 while the vast majority o victim assistance was provided by the NGOs. Multiple NGOs noted good cooperation with the
MOLSAMD. The Ministry o Women’s Aairs (MOWA) oversaw 
a number o NGO-operated and oreign government-unded
shelters that provided services to women, including tracking 
 victims. NGOs reported that MOWA placed restrictions on
the reedom o movement o some emale tracking victims
in these shelters. Child tracking victims were sometimes
placed in shelters or orphanages; there have been reportsthat older boys sexually abused younger boys in shelters.
Funding gaps impeded more eective protection eorts. IOMreported it assisted 284 victims during the reporting period, the
majority o whom were boys and 150 o whom were reerredby the Aghan government. There was no evidence that thegovernment encouraged victims to assist in investigations o their trackers during the reporting period.
Government ocials punished victims o tracking or acts they may have committed as a direct result o being 
tracked. Aghan ocials continued to arrest, imprison, or otherwise punish emale tracking victims or prostitution
or adultery or or escaping rom husbands who had orced
them into prostitution, even i the destination was a shelter.
In the reporting period, government ocials rom several
ministries issued statements emphasizing that running 
away is not considered a crime in the Aghan legal system;
however, these practices continued. NGOs reported instanceso child tracking victims placed in juvenile detention centers,
sometimes or several years. Ocials oten placed tracked
 women who could not be accommodated in shelters in prison.
Some tracked boys were placed in a acility or juvenile
criminals, and tracked adult men were incarcerated, in
part because they could not stay in shelters. The government does not have a policy that provides relie rom deportationor oreign victims o tracking who may ace retribution or hardship in the countries to which they would be deported;however, Aghan law allows oreign victims o tracking toremain legally in Aghanistan or at least six months. There was no inormation that the government orcibly deported
any oreign victims o tracking during the reporting period.
During the reporting period, the Government o Aghanistanmade no discernible progress in preventing human tracking,
though it did adopt an anti-tracking action plan. The High
Commission or Combating Crimes o Abduction and Human Tracking/Smuggling continued to meet on a quarterly basis,though it was ineective due in part to its lack o a designated
budget. While the terms o reerence o the group require that ministries send deputy minister-level members to participate
in meetings, many ministries sent lower-level ocials or 
ailed to attend meetings entirely. Nevertheless, in January 2013, the High Commission approved a national action plan
 which obligated specic anti-tracking actions to its members.
 While the MOI increased the number o ocers to sta the
anti-tracking/smuggling unit and designated two ocers to work on tracking issues in each o Aghanistan’s 34 provinces,
in practice, the majority o the personnel were temporarily 
reassigned to other duties. The government adopted the
 Abu Dhabi Dialogue Framework o Regional Collaboration, which includes provisions to amiliarize workers with their rights and reduce recruitment ees. The government did not 
undertake initiatives to prevent tracking, such as public 
awareness campaigns to warn at-risk populations o the danger o tracking. There was no progress reported toward ullling 
the goals o the action plan signed in January 2011 to combat 
the practice o 
bacha baazi
by the Aghan National Security 
Forces. The government did not take steps to reduce the
demand or commercial sex acts. Aghanistan is not a partto the 2000 UN TIP Protocol.
 ALBANIA (Tier 2 Watch List)
 Albania is a source country or men, women, and children
subjected to sex tracking and orced labor. Albanian
 victims are subjected to sex tracking within Albania andin Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Kosovo, Belgium, Netherlands,
Germany, Switzerland, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
Many women are subjected to tracking ater accepting oerso employment in waitressing, bartending, dancing, or singing 
in neighboring countries, specically in Kosovo, Greece, and
Macedonia. Victims o labor tracking rom the Philippines
 were identied in Albania during the year. Albanian children
are subjected to begging and other orms o compelled labor.Some Albanian girls are subjected to sex tracking or orcedlabor ollowing arranged marriages.
 The Government o Albania does not ully comply with
the minimum standards or the elimination o tracking;
however, it is making signicant eorts to do so. Despite

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