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Trafficking in Persons Report 2013-T-Z Countries

Trafficking in Persons Report 2013-T-Z Countries

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Published by bgeller4936
State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 - Countries from T-Z
State Department Report on Human Trafficking 2013 - Countries from T-Z

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Published by: bgeller4936 on Jun 21, 2013
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punishment o seven years’ imprisonment, a penalty that issuciently stringent though not commensurate with thoseprescribed or other serious crimes, such as rape. Activities
by the Ministry o Interior’s 200-person specialized anti-tracking directorate were eectively suspended, despite
its 2010 mandate to investigate cases, raise public awareness,cooperate with oreign entities, train law enorcement, and
track and annually report on the government’s anti-tracking eorts. The directorate continued to lack a coordination role and
provided no inormation on its investigations or prosecutions
o suspected tracking oenses. In previous reporting periods,there were reports o collusion between low-level police ocersand trackers, particularly regarding the tracking o womenin prostitution. During the last year, there was no evidence that 
the government addressed alleged complicity in tracking-related oenses through investigations.
 The government made no discernible eorts to identiy and
protect victims o tracking during the reporting period.
By the end o the reporting period, the Government o the
Philippines reported that over 100 Filipinos were entering 
Syria each month, and many were tracked to Homs andHama, where they were then trapped by the ongoing siege. While the Philippine embassy continued its attempts rom theprevious reporting period to negotiate with the employers o at least 95 domestic workers or their release, there were noreports that the Government o Syria assisted the embassy inthese eorts to identiy and protect the workers, including 
possible victims o domestic servitude. As in the previous
reporting period, the government did not reer any tracking  victims to NGO-operated shelters. The government also ailedto institute any systematic procedures or the identication,
interview, and reerral o tracking victims. As a result,
 victims o tracking may have been arrested and charged with prostitution or violating immigration laws beore being 
punished or deported. The government ailed to take measuresto protect children rom being orcibly recruited as soldiers andhuman shields. The government neither encouraged victims to
assist in investigations or prosecutions o their trackers nor 
provided oreign victims with legal alternatives to their removal
to countries in which they may ace hardship or retribution.
During the past year, the government made no observable eorts
to prevent tracking or to raise awareness among the generalpublic or government ocials. The Syrian government’s anti-
tracking unit reportedly continued to operate a 2011-institutedhotline or reporting suspected cases o human tracking, but 
made no eorts to raise public awareness o the service. Thegovernment provided no inormation on the number o callsthe hotline received. The status o the government’s nationalplan o action against tracking, which was drated in early 2010, is unknown. The government did not make eorts toreduce the demand or commercial sex acts or orced labor.Syria is not a party to the 2000 UN TIP Protocol.
 TAIWAN (Tier 1)
 Taiwan is a destination and, to a much lesser extent, a source o 
and transit territory or men, women, and children subjectedto sex tracking and orced labor. Most tracking victims in
 Taiwan are migrant workers rom Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia,mainland China, Cambodia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, and
India, employed through recruitment agencies and brokers
to perorm low-skilled work in Taiwan’s manuacturing,
construction, and shing industries, and as home caregiversand domestic workers. Many o these workers all victim to
labor tracking by unscrupulous brokers and employers
 who orce workers to perorm work outside the scope o their contract, oten under exploitative conditions. Migrant workersare reportedly charged up to the equivalent o approximately 
$7,700 in recruitment ees, typically in their home countries,resulting in substantial debts that may be used by brokers or 
employers in Taiwan as tools o coercion to obtain or retain a
migrant’s labor. Labor brokers in Taiwan oten assist employers
in orcibly deporting “problematic” oreign employees, thusallowing the broker to ll the empty quota with new oreign
 workers. Some employers o oreign domestic workers and
home caregivers orbid their employees to leave their residences,
making them unable to seek help, which could indicate that they are at risk o being subjected to orced labor. Although
 Taiwan is primarily a destination territory or labor tracking 
 victims, there are reports that Taiwan university students
have allen victim to orced labor while working in Australia.Some women and girls rom mainland China and southeast 
 Asian countries are lured to Taiwan through raudulent 
marriages and deceptive employment oers or purposes o sex tracking and orced labor. Women rom Taiwan are recruited
through classied ads or employment in Japan, Australia, the
United Kingdom, and the United States; ater their arrival inthese countries, some are orced into prostitution.
 Taiwan authorities ully comply with the minimum standards
or the elimination o tracking. During the reporting 
period, Taiwan authorities continued robust and transparent 
prosecution o tracking oenses, including both orced labor 
and orced prostitution. In addition, the authorities continuedstrong victim protection eorts, trained law enorcement and
other ocials, and raised public awareness on tracking 
oenses.During the reporting year, incidents o alleged labor abuseaboard a Taiwan-fagged shing boat in international waters
o the coast o Hawaii were reported. Following a distress call
rom crewmembers aboard the ship, which had caught reon the open seas, the U.S. Coast Guard taxied 28 emaciated
Indonesian, Chinese, and Burmese crewmembers to shore
 where they were interviewed and treated by authorities. During 
the interviews, the crewmembers claimed that they had beenabused and their pay had been withheld while serving on the
ship. The victims were eventually repatriated to their home
countries. The alleged abuse was being investigated by Taiwan
authorities as o the end o the reporting year.
Recommendations for Taiwan:
Investigate and prosecutethe owners o Taiwan-owned or -fagged shing vessels whoallegedly commit abuse and labor tracking onboard long 
I   W
   T   A   I   W   A   N
haul shing vessels; increase eorts to reduce exploitation o 
migrant workers by brokerage agencies and employers; sustain
and improve eorts to investigate, prosecute, and convict 
tracking oenders using the anti-tracking law; ensure
that convicted traicking oenders receive suiciently stringent sentences; continue to train law enorcement personnel, ocials in the Council o Labor Aairs (CLA),labor inspectors, prosecutors, and judges on victim
identication measures and the anti-tracking law; continue
to raise awareness among victims o the option to assist in
prosecutions and ensure they understand the implications o 
their participation; increase eorts to investigate and prosecute
child sex tourism oenses committed by Taiwan nationals;
and continue eorts to increase public awareness o all orms
o tracking.
 Taiwan authorities sustained their strong anti-tracking law 
enorcement eorts, especially by vigorously prosecuting orced
labor oenses during the reporting period. Taiwan’s Human Tracking Prevention and Control Act (HTPCA), combined
 with portions othe criminal code and the Labor Standards Law,prohibits orced prostitution and labor and prescribes penalties
o up to seven years’ imprisonment, which are suciently 
stringent and commensurate with those prescribed or other 
serious crimes, such as rape. In 2012, Taiwan authorities
convicted 65 people or orced labor and 186 people or sex tracking under the HTPCA, an increase rom 51 labor and113 sex tracking convictions in 2011. Sentences imposedon tracking oenders ranged rom six months to less than
seven years. Upon a ormal inquiry, the authorities initiated an
investigation o the owners and operators o a Taiwan-fagged
 vessel, the Chin Zue Yin, which was ound o the coast o Hawaii, or physical abuse and salary disputes onboard. The
investigation was ongoing at the end o the reporting year.
 Taiwan authorities continued to provide training or judges
and prosecutors. Taiwan authorities, in partnership with a
oreign government, conducted outreach and training eventsrom January 2012 to February 2013 in which more than 750
law enorcement ocers and government ocials participated.
 Taiwan authorities reported one conviction and sentencing o a Taiwan ocial or complicity in tracking-related oensesduring the reporting period. The ormer director o the Taipei
Economic and Cultural Oce in Kansas City, who allegedly 
subjected two domestic workers to conditions o orced labor 
in the United States, received two years’ suspension romocial duty ater pleading guilty to a tracking-related
oense and serving our months in jail in the United Statesbeore being deported.
During the reporting period, Taiwan authorities sustained
their eorts to protect victims o tracking. Authorities
continued employing systematic procedures to proactively 
identiy and assist victims o tracking. The authorities
distributed reerence indicators with specic questions and astandardized evaluation orm to law enorcement ocials or 
use in interviewing potential victims o tracking. Taiwanauthorities identied and assisted 462 tracking victims in2012, o which 152 were victims o labor tracking and 310o sex tracking, most o them Indonesian and Vietnamese;
all 462 were reerred to care acilities or assistance. Theauthorities maintained 21 shelters in Taiwan under theadministration o two government agencies; three run by 
the National Immigration Agency (NIA) are dedicated solely to victims o tracking, while the other 18 are run by the
Council or Labor Aairs (CLA) and are made available to
 victims o tracking. All 21 shelters are administered by NGO partners with government unding and subject to
government regulation. The dedicated NIA tracking shelters
provided victims o tracking—both men and women—
 with medical and psychological services, legal counseling,
 vocational training, small stipends, and repatriation assistance.
 Taiwan authorities also reported providing social workers and
interpreters to accompany victims during court proceedings.
 Taiwan authorities encouraged victims to participate in
investigations against their trackers by oering temporary residency and work permits. Foreign tracking victims whoaced retribution or hardship i returned to their country o 
origin were legally entitled to permanent residency in Taiwan,
though to date Taiwan authorities have not granted such
residency to any oreign victim. Authorities reported protecting 
 victims’ saety until their return to their home countries. In
order to expedite tracking cases, the authorities ordered thejudiciary and protective services to communicate and ensure
that these cases did not take longer than three months to
adjudicate. While the HTPCA provides that human tracking  victims can receive immunity or crimes committed as a result 
o being tracked, NGOs claimed that tracking victims
 were occasionally treated as criminals in such cases.
 Taiwan authorities made progress in their eorts to prevent 
tracking in persons during the reporting period. In October 
2012, the NIA, with support rom oreign and Taiwangovernment agencies, NGOs, and other media partners,launched MTV EXIT’s lm “Enslaved,” which presented
stories o victims o tracking to more than 230 people at a launch event. The lm was aired on MTV Taiwan and CTI
 TV over the ollowing two weeks, reaching an estimated
 viewership o 200,000. The video is available online and in video or distribution. In November 2012, the NIA held an
international tracking seminar in Taipei that ocused on
the experiences o tracking victims and NGO workers. The
seminar was attended by 220 NGO workers, academics, and
oreign and Taiwan ocials. Throughout the year, oreign
governments sought guidance rom Taiwan’s authorities inaddressing human tracking issues. The NIA continued tound advertisements and public service announcements on
human tracking prevention in newspapers, magazines,and on the radio and distributed anti-tracking posters
and pocket cards, o which the latter eatured inormation
in seven dierent languages. The CLA continued to operate
oreign-worker service stations and international airport service counters around Taiwan to assist migrant workers
and educate them on their rights and the hotline number.
 Authorities continued to distribute handbooks detailing 
relevant laws and regulations pertaining to oreign workers
to more than 200,000 employers and aired radio shows
highlighting the rights o migrant workers. In an eort tostrengthen cross-Strait cooperation, the ministry o justice
invited prosecutors rom mainland China to attend a seminar 
on tracking case studies in May 2012. In addition, Taiwan
authorities signed memoranda o understanding with thegovernments o Mongolia, Indonesia, and The Gambia to
increase cooperation in combating human tracking. Taiwan
has laws with extraterritorial application that criminalize
sexual exploitation o children by Taiwan passport holderstraveling abroad. However, authorities have not prosecuted
any Taiwan passport holder or child sex tourism oenses
committed abroad since 2006. The children’s bureau, withinthe Ministry o Interior, launched a blog and several internet 
games, as well as posters and advertisements in popular 
areas, to increase awareness o and discourage participationin child sex tourism.
 Tajikistan is a source country or men, women, and children
subjected to orced labor, and women and children subjected
to sex tracking. Some Tajik men and women are subjected
to orced labor in agriculture and construction in Russia,
the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and, to a lesser extent, in
Kazakhstan, Aghanistan, and Saudi Arabia. Women and
children rom Tajikistan are subjected to orced prostitutionprimarily in the UAE and Russia, and also in Saudi Arabia,
Kazakhstan, Aghanistan, and within Tajikistan. These women
sometimes transit through Russia and Kyrgyzstan
en route
to their destination country. Tajikistan also has an internal
tracking problem. There are reports o Tajik children subjected
to sex tracking and orced labor, including orced begging,
 within Tajikistan and in Aghanistan. The orced prostitution
and debt bondage o Tajik women and girls in Aghanistansometimes occurs through orced marriages to Aghan men.
Some Tajik children and possibly some adults were subjected
to agricultural orced labor in Tajikistan – mainly during theall 2012 cotton harvest – but this exploitation occurred toa lesser degree than in 2011. Seven Tajik tracking victims were identied in Kyrgyzstan in 2012.
 The Government o Tajikistan does not ully comply with the
minimum standards or the elimination o tracking; however,
it is making signicant eorts to do so. The government 
continued to make progress in urther reducing the use o 
orced labor in the annual cotton harvest. However, thegovernment continued to lack procedures to proactively 
identiy tracking victims among vulnerable populations
and reer them to existing protective services. The lack o 
adequate victim protection remained a serious problem in
the country.
Recommendations for Tajikistan:
Continue to enorce
prohibition against the orced labor o children in the annual
cotton harvest by inspecting cotton elds during the harvest,
in collaboration with local government ocials and civil
society organizations; include the monitoring o adult orcedlabor in the overall inspection o conditions during the cotton
harvest, and expand the monitoring activities to all cotton
growing districts; vigorously investigate and prosecutesuspected traicking oenses, respecting due process,
especially those involving orced labor, and convict and punish
tracking oenders; develop a ormal victim identicationand reerral mechanism; ensure that sex tracking victims
are not penalized or prostitution oenses; nalize, pass, and
implement drat anti-tracking legislation to strengthen victim protection and clariy the denition o tracking;
strengthen the capacity and awareness o Tajik embassies and
consulates to proactively identiy victims and reer them to
protective services, including via repatriation; work withinternational organizations and NGOs to develop
comprehensive protection and rehabilitation programs or 
tracking victims, including psychological care and economic 
and social reintegration; impose stricter, appropriate penalties
on local ocials who orce individuals to participate in the
cotton harvest; help develop and sponsor campaigns in ruralareas to raise awareness about all orms o human tracking;
provide victim identication and victim sensitivity training 
to border guard and law enorcement authorities; provide
nancial or increased in-kind assistance to existing protection
services or tracking victims, including shelters; work to
guarantee the saety o witnesses and victims during the
investigation and prosecution o tracking cases; and improve
the collection o anti-tracking law enorcement data.
 The Government o Tajikistan continued limited anti-
tracking law enorcement eorts during the reporting period.
 Article 130.1 o the criminal code prohibits both orced sexualexploitation and orced labor, and prescribes penalties o ve
to 15 years’ imprisonment, which are suciently stringent 
and commensurate with penalties prescribed or other serious
crimes, such as rape. Article 167 prohibits the buying and
selling o children, prescribing ve to 12 years’ imprisonment. The government investigated and prosecuted three tracking 
cases under Article 130.1 in 2012. The government did not report any convictions o tracking oenders under Article
130.1 in 2012, compared with six convictions reported in
2011. The government reported that it took law enorcement action against tracking crimes under other articles in thecriminal code, but did not provide specic inormation onsuch cases. The Tajik government compiled law enorcement data across a variety o agencies and may count tracking cases multiple times. In response to orced child labor cases
in the 2012 cotton harvest that were identied through
monitoring by IOM, the government levied nes against arms
and schools. Ocials reerred 11 cases to the government’sInter-Ministerial Commission or Combating Tracking in
Persons (IMCCTP) or urther investigation, but the disposition
o these investigations is unknown. In partnership with
international organizations, the government continued to
conduct an anti-tracking course as part o the Ministry o 
Interior Academy’s training curriculum or police ocials. In
2012, approximately 80 police academy students completed
the training. The Government o Tajikistan did not report any 
investigations or prosecutions o government employees or alleged complicity in tracking-related oenses during thereporting period.
 The government continued limited eorts to identiy and assist 
tracking victims during the reporting period. Authorities
did not have a systematic procedure or identiying andreerring victims or assistance. The government did not 
ormalize victim reerral procedures through a working group
established in 2010. Because Tajik law enorcement ocialsdid not dierentiate between women in prostitution and sex 
tracking victims and did not attempt to identiy tracking  victims among women ound in prostitution, the government 
 J I   I    S 

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